Architecture surrounds us no matter where we may be. From the cool, jaw-dropping homes that we see in the magazines to the iconic and historical buildings that we recognize instantly, architecture is everywhere. Architecture seems to speak to us. Some cities, streets, or buildings speak to us of aggression, chaos, or military pride while others whisper of graceful dignity, calm, or gentleness.
At times, we fail to realize the importance of good architecture and the effect it has on our lives and mood. If we understood what impact ugly architecture has on our lives and spirits, we would for sure become an advocate of good architecture.
Architecture is not just a science, but an art. Building massive structures that are not only a sight to look at but are also functional is something that requires skill, sense, and effort. To establish structures that become renowned in the whole world is something not everyone can achieve and those who have achieved it have made to the list of the most famous architects of all times.
We have compiled a list of 100 famous architects of all times. The list includes age-old architects and modern architects, everyone whose contributions in architecture cannot be overlooked. They have designed the finest cathedrals, museums, art galleries, airport terminals, skyscrapers, private houses, and banks.
These architects are the ones who contributed to the European architecture between the early 14th century and 16th century in many different regions. They demonstrated the revival and development of some elements of ancient Roman and Greek thought and material culture.
1. Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi was born in Florence, Italy in 1377. He is one of the pioneers of Renaissance architecture in Italy. He was an architect and an engineer. He is known for his major work- the dome of the Cathedral Santa Maria del Flore in Florence. He was the first ever modern engineer. Being an innovative problem solver, he worked on the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Flore with the help of machines that he particularly invented for this project.
He has also worked for building and rebuilding many military fortifications in different cities like Rencine, Pisa, Rimini, Castellina, and Vicopisano. He is the creator of a hoist-like mechanism that helped in theatrical performances in Florentine churches. This mechanism assisted characters in flying around. He also secured the first modern patent for his invention of a riverboat.
He died in Florence, on 15th April 1446. His tomb is situated in Duomo.
2. Michelozzo di Bartolomeo
Michelozzo di Bartolomeo was born in 1396 in Florence. His father was a tailor. At the age of 14, Michelozzo became an apprentice of Ghiberti. He became known as the second greatest among sculptors in Europe. Most of his work has been done in collaboration with Donatello. He developed the concept of central palazzo configuration which still defines the visage of Italy even today.
One of the most renowned projects that Michelozzo did with Ghiberti was the North Doors of the Baptisery, depicting stories that were told in the New Testament. He also assisted Donatello in building the sacristy of the Santa Trinita which is situated in Florence. He also executed the tomb of Antipope John XXIII. Michelozzo was also an architect for Cosimo de’ Medici for about 40 years. One of his greatest works was the Palazzo Medici Ricarddi which took a good 40 years!
3. Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti was not just an architect but a writer, sculptor, and a painter. He wrote several books due which his contributions to architecture, sculpture, and painting can never be forgotten. These include De Statua (a book on sculpturing), Della Pittura (a book on Painting), and De Re Aedificatoria (a book on Architecture).
His first architectural contribution was for Sigismondo Malatesta of Rimini who wanted to covert the Gothic church of San Francesco in Rimini into a mausoleum for himself. Though it was never completed, it stands as a strong reminder of Roman Antiquity.
More prominent works in architecture include the Church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence and Palazzo Rucellai. The last two churches that Alberti worked on were Santa Sebastiano and Santa Andrea. Santa Sebastiano was never really completed while Santa Andrea was completed after Alberti’s death.
4. Giuliano da Sangallo
Guiliano da Sangallo was one of the most eminent architects during the Italian Renaissance. He belonged to a family of architects of Florentine Renaissance. The most prominent members of his family were Antonio de Sangallo the Elder, Antonio de Sangallo the Younger, and Francesco da Sangallo.
- Guiliano da Sangallo is known for his incredible contributions. His major works include the following: Medici Villa at Poggio a Caiano that he built for Lorenzo de’ Medici
- Santa Maria Delle Carceri, a church that was built at the miracle site where a painting of infant Jesus Christ and Virgin Mary was seen to come to life
- Reggia in Naples, a castle for the King of Naples, Ferrante of Aragon
- Church of San Gallo, a church for Augustinian monks
- Palazzo Gondi, a palazzo for Guiliano Gondi, a wealthy Florentine merchant. Palazzo Gondi was not completed during the lifetime of Guiliano da Sangallo and is still subject to renovations
- Palazzo Della Rovere
His final work was the assistance in the design and the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica, after which he died in 1516, in Florence.
5. Donato Bramante
Donato Bramante was one of the most popular architects during the High Renaissance. Donato Bramante’s first major work in architecture was the church in Milan, Santa Maria presso San Satiro. He transformed a simple rectangular building into a marvel that still stands proudly today. Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio is a well-known Christian structure that was built by Donato Bramante in Rome. Tempietto di San Pietro is the perfect embodiment of the philosophies that prevailed during the Renaissance. It was the first time when Doric order was fully used.
He died in April 1514, after working in numerous other commissions.
Michelangelo was an architect, painter, sculptor, and a poet. He was called ‘il divino’ which means the divine one in English. A lot of his creations appear to be super-human. He created primarypieces like David, the sculpture that looked really like living flesh and blood, the painted ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and numerous examples in the field of architecture.
He built several structures that one can’t stop staring at. The marvelous contributions in architecture include the facade on the Papel Chapel in Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome, the Laurentian Library in Saint Lorenzo in Florence, Palazzo Farnese in Rome, the dome of St Peter’s Basilica Vatican, and Porta Pia in Rome.
We can see great works by Michelangelo even today in Rome and understand the life of that era in a better way, all thanks to the genius Michelangelo Buonarroti.
7. Baldassare Peruzzi
Baldessare Peruzzi was an architect and a painter who was born in Siena and died in Rome. He contributed to the architecture of his hometown and Rome. He was one of the architects to have worked on Saint Peter’s Basilica where he also worked on two outstanding buildings: the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne and the Villa Farnesina. Villa Farnesina was originally known as the Villa Chigi.
Other architectural works by Peruzzi include a mosaic ceiling in Santa Croce, which is a church in Gerusalemme, paintings in churches of San Pietro and Sant’Onofrio in Montorio and Santa Maria in Siena.
Raphael was a painter and an architect in the Italian Renaissance. He was best known for Madonnas that were a series of paintings. Raphael contributions were not limited to paintings. He contributed a great deal to architecture as well.
In 1508, Raphael moved from Italy to Rome, where he started painting in the Vatican Stanze under the patronage of Pope Julius II. By 1514, he had become famous because of his work at the Vatican. He hired a crew which allowed him to focus more on other projects. In 1517, he began his work in architecture. He was hired by the Pope as the chief architect after Donato Bramante died. He designed the chapel in Sant’ Eligo degil Oredici. He also worked on Santa Maria del Popolo chapel in Rome, and on an area in Saint Peter’s new Basilica. He also designed palaces.
Even centuries after his death, Raphael is still considered as one of the leading artistic figures of Italian High Renaissance classicism.
9. Michele Sanmicheli
Michele Sanmicheli is known to be one of the greatest mannerist architects and town planners in Italy. You can find his works in numerous cities like Venice, Bergamo, Verona, and Brescia. He also worked in Crete, Corfu, Zadar, and Sibenik where he studied Greek architecture. He worked on numerous religious structures and palaces.
He contributed in the building of the Corner Mocenigo palace in Venice. His works include Palazzo Roncale in Rovigo, Palazzo Grimani di San Luca in Venice, and Palazzo Honorji in Verona. One of his primarypieces included the triumphal arch for the entry of the Bona Sforza in Padua.
He died in 1559 due to a violent fever. He has been buried in the church of San Tomaso Cantuariense.
10. Jacopo Sansovino
Jacopo Sansovino introduced the art style High Renaissance in Venice. He began his career in Florence as a sculpture but was welcomed warmly in Venice by Lorenzo Lotto, a painter, illustrator, and a draughtsman. He declared Jacopo Sansovino as second to Michelangelo.
He was appointed as the proto of the Procurators of San Marco which was the most influential architectural office in the country. He reworked the Piazza di San Marco to its current shape. He also started designing the Republic’s new Mint (Zecca) which came to become one of the biggest in all of Europe. Sansovino also designed the Libreria Vecchia, the city library. Libreria Vecchia on the Piazzetta San Marco is considered a primarypiece of Renaissance architecture.
Sansovino also designed many private commissions, hospitals, palaces, and churches.
11. Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan was an Ottoman architect who is considered as the greatest in the Ottoman Empire. He had become a valued military engineer. Because of his reputation, he was appointed as the head of the office of the royal architects. Upon the orders of Sultan Suleyman, Mimar Sinan built the legendary Sehzade Mosque after Sultan Suleyman’s favorite son Mehmet died. It is considered as a primarypiece even today.
Mimar Sinan also bagged the credits of building the Suleymaniye Kulliye, Sokollu Mehmet Pasha Mosque Complex, and the Selimiye Complex.
The above mentioned projects are not the only projects Mimar Sinan worked on. They are just a few from a long list. These majestic structures continue to be a major tourist attraction of Istanbul today.
12. Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano was an Italian designer, painter, and an architect who started his career from the workshop of Raphael. In 1525, Giulio set himself free from the influence of Raphael and became the initiator of a new style of Mannerism that showcased a liberated attitude to the classical influence.
Giulio became the chief architect and painter of the court of the Gonzagas in Mantua. The latter part of his career was devoted to architecture. He was involved in the rebuilding of the Ducal Palace in Mantua, he renovated the cathedral and also designed the Church if San Benedetto. He planned decorations for Verona Cathedral’s choir and apse. As a primary of mural paintings, he is best known for his work on trompe l’oeil frescoes in the Palazzo del Te.
13. Giacomo Barozzi Vignola
Giacomo Barozzi Vignola was an Italian architect who lived when the Renaissance era was at its peak and through the period when Renaissance architecture was transitioning into Baroque style.
He was appointed by Pope Julius III as a papal architect in Rome. He succeeded Michelangelo after his death as an architect for work on St. Peter’s. Villa Caprarola, situated near Viterbo is one of his finest productions. He did this work for Cardinal Alessandro Farbese. He also worked on the Villa Giulia for the Pope Julius III in Rome. He was the interior designer of the Church of the Gesu in Rome.
Vignola has credits for many architectural primarypieces that still overwhelm the cities today. He is not just known for his architectural contributions but he has also written a treatise, ‘Five Orders of Architecture’ which was translated in many languages.
14. Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio is one of the most prominent figures in architecture. His legacy was carried forward far beyond his lifetime. He was considered to be one of the most influential figures in the entire history of Western architecture. His designs were based on Greek architecture.
He is best known for his contributions to architecture, including the villas in Veneto, palaces in Vicenza, and churches in Venice, that are all located within the Venetian Republic. His greatest works include Villa Cornaro, the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Villa Capra, and the Church of II Redentore. Many of the buildings by Palladio in Veneto and Vicenza have been protected by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.
15. Philibert de l’Orme
Philibert de l’Orme was born in Lyons. He was the son of Primary Mason. He went to Rome in 1533 for the excavation and measurement of ancient Roman buildings. He returned to his hometown in 1536 where he built the house for Antoine Bullioud.
In 1540, he was called to Rome by Du Bellay who had become his friend during the earlier visit to Rome. He wanted l’Orme to build his château at St-Maur-lès-Foussés which was the first ever building to show how measures and proportions should be observed in architecture. It was also the first ever building in France that had a horseshoe staircase and columnar order in all elements of decoration.
He was appointed as a superintendent of buildings by Henry II. He built the Tomb of Francis at St-Denis for Henry II. He was commissioned by the mistress of Henry II, Diane de Poitiers, to build her château at Anet. However, he was dismissed by Henry II’s wife, Catherine de Médicis after he died. He was summoned again in 1563 to enlarge St.Maur for her son and also to build the new palace for her, the Palace of Tuileries in Paris. By the time l’Orme died, only the central pavilion’s lower section was complete.
16. Giacomo Della Porta
Giacomo Della Porta was an Italian architect and sculptor who was born in a family of sculptors in Geneva. He was greatly influenced by and also collaborated with Michelangelo and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola. Having two of the greatest architects as primarys, he became a very important architect in the history of the Roman Renaissance.
He worked on a number of important buildings like St.Peter’s Basilica. He continued the plans of Michelangelo to rebuild the Capitoline Hill or Campidoglio’s open spaces where he was involved in the completion of the façade and steps of Palazzo Senatorio, and the Cordonata up to the Piazza del Campidoglio. After Vignola died, he continued the construction of II Gesu which was the mother church of Jesuit. He also constructed the Palazzo Albertoni Spinola, creating the entrance gallery and also the entrance hall of the Palace. He was the in-charge of construction that was going on in St. Peter’s Basilica. He also completed the dome of Michelangelo with Domenico Fontana.
17. Vincenzo Scamozzi
Vicenzo Scamozzi was a Venetian writer on architecture and a practicing architect. He was the most important architects that lived between Andrea Palladio and Baldassarre Longhena. He wrote very highly of Andrea Palladio in his literature. When Andrea Palladio died, Vincenzo Scamozzi was appointed to complete many of Palladio’s unfinished projects.
The primarypieces that were constructed by Vincenzo Scamozzi include the Rocca Oisana in Lonigo, completion of Villa Rotonda that has the world-famous scene of the Teatro Olimpico with roads of Thebes, Villa Molin in Mandriola, Villa Nani Mocenigo in Canda, Villa Duodo in Monselice, the theatre of Sabbioneta, and his design of the Salzburg Cathedral.
They are the architects that worked during the Baroque era (late 16th century). They used the Roman Renaissance architecture to form a new theatrical and rhetorical fashion, quite often used to express the triumph of the Catholic Church. The architectural commissions that were the most popular during this era were churches and palaces.
18. Carlo Maderno
Carlo Maderno was a Swiss-Italian architect who is remembered as the father of Baroque architecture. He went to Rome in 1588 to work for his uncle Domenico Fontana who was an architect for Pope Sixtus V. It wasn’t until 1596 that he got to work on the first important commission- the church of Santa Susanna. It was completed in 1603 and was called the first Baroque facade.
Maderno’s work on Santa Susanna caught the attention of Pope Paul V and he appointed Maderno as the chief architect for the completion of St. Peter’s. He was forced to modify the original plan of Michelangelo and was made to provide designs for an extended nave having a palatial façade.
Most of his work was usually the remodeling of already developed structures. One of his primarypieces was the Santa Maria Della Vittoria which took 12 years to get completed.
19. Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones was born in London. He caught the attention of the royals by designed exquisite masques which were a kind of a ball that was enjoyed by the royalty. He provided the settings and costumes for these fancy dances.
In 1598, a patron paid for Inigo’s trip to Italy. He visited Florence, Rome, and Venice where all emerging architects went. It was a time when Italy was in the last stages of the Renaissance. Inigo Jones discovered the great works of Andrea Palladio. He bought his drawings, visited his buildings, and also studied the ruins of Roman temples. When he returned to London 5 years later, he brought with him the Palladian architecture to England.
He continued designing masques upon his return to England. He also used it as a means to indulge with the nobility. He completed his first architectural commission in 1608 for the Earl of Salisbury. Later in 1611, he was appointed the surveyor to Prince Henry’s works, and later to King James I after the death of Prince Henry. During his career, he designed mansions, churches, and gardens. Two of the most prominent architectural works of Inigo Jones are The Queen’s House in Greenwich and the Banqueting House, Whitehall. During the brief career that he had, he became a great Welsh architect and introduced a revival of classical architecture in London singlehandedly.
20. Pietro da Cortona
Pietro da Cortona was an Italian architect who was a true representative of high Baroque architecture. His real name was Pietro Berrettini but he is known for his birthplace that was Cortona (a small town in Tuscany).
When he went to Rome in his teens, he was influenced by the ancient Roman sculptures and the paintings of Annibale. He was encouraged by Cassiano dal Pozzo to study ancient Roman sculptures and architecture.
Most of his career includes some majestic pieces of paintings but some part of his career is dedicated to architecture as well. Among his architectural works, the façade for the church Santa Maria Della Pace in Rome is the most prominent one. It spreads on one side, across the front of a cloister, and an adjacent church on the other side.
Bernini was the son of popular sculptor Pietro Bernini. He was a great sculptor from an age as early as 8 years. Bernini moved to Rome in 1606 when his father was invited by Pope to work on the construction of Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore.
Cardinal Maffeo Barberini was impressed by Bernini’s skill and he reported about it to his uncle, Pope Paul V and this lead to Bernini’s appointment on a role that was earlier held by Michelangelo. Most of Bernini’s career was dedicated to sculpting. However, he tried to transform Rome through an urban planning project which was quite costly. He recreated the ‘glory of Rome’ that began in the 15th century. He focused greatly on architecture that included the piazza that lead to St. Peter’s.
22. Francois Mansart
Francois Mansart was a French architect who was born in Paris. He was the student of Salomon de Brosse, who was an architect of the Luxembourg Palace.
He received numerous commissions. Some of the work he did during his early period includes the châteaux of Berny and Balleroy. He rebuilt the château of Blois. He also worked on many townhouses in Paris. Most notable ones include Hôtel de la Vrillière and the Hôtel Le Jars. Château of Maisons is the best known of all his domestic works. It was in 1645 that he was commissioned to design the convent and the church of the Val-de-Grâce in Paris.
He was asked to submit his designs for the eastern wing of the Great Court of the Louvre which he never did due to his obsession of modifying his designs. Due to this reason, he was ignored by the time he died in 1666.
23. Francesco Borromini
Francesco Borromini is one of the most important contributors to the Roman baroque art in the 17th century. Most of his work combined geometric rationalism and an imaginative sense of drama.
The most famous architectural designs that he worked on include the following:
- Cappella del St Sacramento
- Palazzo Spada
- Oratory of St Phillip Neri
- Church of St Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
- Church of St Ivo alla Sapienza (1640-60) Dome and Facade
- Maria dei Sette Dolori
- Palazzo Pamphili
- St Giovani in Laterano
- Villa Falconieri, Frascati
- Church of St Agnese in Agone
- Church of St Giovanni dei Fiorentini
His life was a rather difficult one. Due to this reserved personality, he had to struggle for commissions. He committed suicide in 1667.
24. Alonso Cano
Alonso Cano was taught fundamentals of architecture by his father from a very early age. He has credits to numerous primarypieces in painting and sculpting. Most of his paintings and sculptures from early times did not survive. However, Saint John the Evangelist’s Vision of Jerusalem, one of his paintings are displayed in the Wallace Collection, London.
His greatest contribution to architecture is Granada Cathedral. He was appointed as Canon at Granada Cathedral. He was the chief architect for the cathedral. a position that he secured till his death. He designed many decorations and features of the western façade of Granada Cathedral which is the basis of his reputation as the greatest architects of Spain, to date.
25. Louis Le Vau
Louis Le Vau was a son of a stonemason, Le Vau. He was trained by his father. Louis Le Vau was influenced by the Italian architecture, including the works of Pietro da Cortona and Bernini.
He began his architectural career with Hotel de Bautru and Hotel Lambart. He also designed many townhouses on the Ile Saint-Louis. He designed a colonnade and the new wings for the Lourve. He was appointed the first architect to King Louis XIV. E started working on his architectural primarypiece, Chateau- Vaux-le-Vicomte.
He was the main structural architect, along with Jules Hardouin Mansart, for phase one of remodeling of Palace of Versailles. He renovated the Marble Court. He also remodeled the garden façade of the palace, which was initially a hunting lodge.
The famous buildings that were designed by Louis Le Vau are:
- Hotel de Bautru
- Hotel Lambert, Ile Saint-Louis
- Chateau of Livry, Raincy
- Church of Saint-Sulpice
- Palais du Louvre
- Hotel de Fonteney
- Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte
- Vincennes Castle
- College des Quatre-Nations (now Institut de France)
- Palais du Louvre (Galerie d’Apollon)
- Palace of Versailles (stage)
26. Andre Le Notre
Andre Le Notre is known as the king of gardeners. He was the gardener to the King. He is credited to have given the “French garden” its noble reputation.
He started his career as a gardener to the uncle of Louis XIV, Gastin – the duke if Orleans. He was born in a family who had been a gardener to the king ever since the 16th century. He took his training in the garden at Les Tuileries where he was made the head gardener. He also worked for the Fouquet at Vaux-le-Vicomte. He became the Controller of General Buildings in 1657, to the King. After 5 years, he was working for Grande Conde, on the gardens of Chantilly. He was then summoned by King Louis XIV, for the garden of Palace of Versailles, where he was the chief gardener.
27. Sir Christopher Wren
Sir Christopher Wren was not inclined to architecture until the age of 30. He was trained in mathematics and science and had the ability to solve scientific problems. This provided him with the technical training that was needed to undertake complex projects in the field of architecture.
The first venture in architecture was Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford. He visited France once, during which he studied baroque architecture and French Renaissance. The influence of his learning can be seen in his work.
He was appointed by King Charles after the Great Fire in 1666 to reconstruct the city. His plan, which was a typical 17th-century city plan, was not accepted. He was then made responsible to replace 87 parish churches that were demolished in the Great Fire. From 1670 to 1686, 51 new churches were designed, which came to be known as City Churches.
Some of his most renowned projects include the Trinity College Library at Cambridge, design of St. Paul’s Cathedral, the Royal Hospital at Chelsea, Hampton Court Palace (designed for King William III and Queen Mary), and last but definitely not the least important, the Royal Naval Hospital at Greenwich.
28. Jules Hardouin Mansart
Jules Hardouin Mansart was the grand-nephew of Francois Mansart. He succeeded Louis Le Vau as the Royal Architect to King Louis XIV. His skill and passion can be seen in the grandiose facades of the Palace of Versailles. He also designed the French Windows for Grand Trianon at Versailles. He also has the credit of designing the majestic dome of Les Invalides. He was appointed as the Premier Architect and Superintendent of Buildings.
Other contributions in architecture include:
- Chateau of Marly
- The Place Vendome in Paris
29. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach is one of the most important architects that lived during the Baroque era. He was an Austrian architect, who initially made sculptures. The first architectural works that he did was a triumphal arch that was more than 30 meters high, marking the coronation of Roman King.
Other architectural primarypieces include the Palais Clam-Gallas, Prague, Town Palace of Prince Eugen of Savoy in Vienna, designs for Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, and Hofbibliothek, Vienna.
30. Jakob Prandtauer
Jakob Prandtauer was an Austrian architect who studied architecture and sculpture. He learned the trade with his father but the age of 19, he was working as a sculptor in a city in lower Austria, Sankt Polten. By the time he turned 40, he was Baumeister (primary builder) who was working on numerous projects.
He worked for the monastery of Melk on the Danube and completely rebuilt the church and all the buildings of the huge complex which is one of the largest monastic complexes. He also built the pilgrimage church on Sonntagberg and the monastery at Garsten. Moreover, he reconstructed the monastery of Sankt Florian, situated near Linz. He worked on numerous other projects as well.
Jakob Prandtauer was not just an architect but he was in charge of all aspects of construction, including the interior and exterior designs. He died while many of his projects were still unfinished.
31. Johann Dientzenhofer
Johann Dientzenhofer was an architect and a builder in Germany. He belonged to a famous family of German architects, Dientzenhofer. They were leading builders during the German and Bohemian baroque era.
The major architectural works of Johann Dientzenhofer among many others include:
- Fulda Cathedral for the Abbot of Fulda
- Parish church of St. Wenzel, Litzendorf
- Facade of Neumünster church, Würzburg
32. Andreas Schluter
Andreas Schluter was a German architect and a sculptor. He produced many sculptures like the statues for the Long Bridge leading to the palace in Berlin that earned him a great deal of reputation.
His architectural works are also known for the sculptural approach that is evident in most of his work. He was appointed for the elector, as the surveyor of general works. He was made in-charge of all buildings. He worked on a new palace that was situated on the island of Spree, which is known as the Berlin Schloss. He not only designed the structure but also took care of the decorative details. The parts of Berlin Schloss that were designed by Andreas Schluter include the Great Portal, the Great Court, and the main rooms situated on the first floor. He also executed works as the pulpit in the Alte Post, St. Mary’s Church, and the Münzturm which was a water tower attached to the Mint.
It was due to the discovery of structural problems in many of his works that his reputation saw a downfall, and he was in disgrace in the court. He was then permitted to work as a sculptor only. He left for St. Petersburg in 1714 and died shortly after his arrival there.
33. Sir John Vanbrugh
Sir John Vanbrugh was an English dramatist and an architect who was born in London. He studied arts in France, but he soon resigned the commission of a foot regiment that he had obtained. He was imprisoned as a spy for 2 years during his travel in France. During his imprisonment, he wrote a comedy play that was highly successful. He wrote many other plays and adaptations as well.
Sir John Vanbrugh’s interest in architecture was sudden. He began designing the Castle Howard in Yorkshire, for the Earl of Carlisle. He was secured as the comptroller of royal works by the Earl the same year he started working on the castle. He was also commissioned to work on the Greenwich Hospital. He also built the Blenheim Palace that the Duke of Marlborough intended to give as a royal gift to the one who won the war against Louis XIV.
He was a popular member of society and lived a rather happy life. He died early, leaving behind two sons.
34. Pedro de Ribera
Pedro de Ribera worked exclusively in Madrid. He is one of the most prominent architects during the late baroque period. He contributed the architecture of the city through palaces, city bridges, churches, monumental fountains, and many public buildings, a lot of which can still be seen today.
He was the Lieutenant Major Primary of Works and sources of the city Madrid. He succeeded Theodore Ardemans after his death. His position made his reputation strong that allowed him to take up an important position at court. Many of the works of Ribera were either destroyed or modified in the 18th century when his architectural style was attacked by the art scholars who were very influential, like Antonio Ponz.
Some of his architectural contributions are:
- Torrecilla Palace
- Church of San Cayetano
- Ucles Monastery
- Fuente de la Fama
35. Johann Balthasar Neumann
Johann Balthasar Neumann was born in Bohemia which is the Czech Republic today. He studied engineering after becoming an apprentice at a metal foundry. He later joined the imperial Austrian army. While in the army, he worked on his technical skills in the field of fortress architecture.
After working under the supervision of Joseph Greising and Andreas Muller, he was appointed as the chief architect-engineer in Wurzburg by the Schonborn family. He became the chief architect of the new Residenz project (the initial architectural planning had already been done before Neumann took up). The Wurzburg Palace was completed in almost a quarter of a century. The Wurzburg Residence Frescoes is one of the greatest palaces that were built in the Baroque era.
He completed numerous other projects while he was working at the Wurzburg Palace. They include:
- Walifahrtskirche ,Twin-towered Pilgrim’s Church at Grossweinstein
- Marble staircase for the Augustusburg Palace at Bruhl
- Single-towered Trinity Church at Gaiback
- Benedictine Abbey at Neresheim
- the Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers (Vierzehnheiligen)
36. Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach
Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach was an Austrian architect, inventor, mine engineer, and a mechanical engineer. He was the son of the famous architect, Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. He worked on some of the unfinished projects that his father left behind. These projects included the Imperial Library, the Karlskirche, and Winter Riding School of the Hofburg. He also worked on many castles, palaces, and churches, built some amazing monuments, tombs, gardens, and altars.
Later in his life, he left the field of architecture and devoted himself to the technical talent that he had. Many of the earlier buildings attributed to him come from other architects.
37. Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff
Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff was not an architect from the beginning. He was first a soldier, and then he became a portrait and landscape painter. He then became a theatre director, land designer, followed by an interior decorator, eventually landing in the field o architecture.
He was an architect in the service of Frederick II of Prussia. He was on friendly terms with the Crown Prince, who later became the King. In about two decades that he worked for the King, he supplied a number of designs for townhouses, castles, parks, colonnades, etc. his designs influenced the appearance of the cities of Potsdam and Berlin greatly. Today, most of his work has either been destroyed or has been changed. Only some of it could be restored or preserved.
Some of his major contributions to Baroque architecture are:
- Potsdam City Palace
- Sanssouci Palace Potsdam
38. Bartolomeo Rastrelli
The last of the great Baroque architects to work in St. Petersburg was Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli. He was born in Paris and received professional education from his father who was a sculptor and a trained architect. The first work Rastrelli did was building a home in St.Petersburg for the Prince Dimitrie Cantemir who was the former ruler of Moldova.
His career took off in the 1730s after he started working for Ernst Johann von Biron. The first project he did for the new patron was building a riding school on Nevsky Prospekt which was later demolished. Rastrelli built two palaces in Duchy of Courtland and Semigallia for von Biron who became Duke in 1737, at Rundale and Jelgava. He became the Chief Architect of the Imperial Court as well.
Ratrelli designed the Summer Palace in St. Petersburg after Von Viron fell from power in 1740. In 1744, Empress Elizabeth ordered Rastrelli to build the Mariinsky Palace as her summer residence in Kiev. He started the reconstruction and redecoration work on the Grand Palace in Peterhof the next year which officially opened in 1755.
The next project Rastrelli worked on was the Smolny Convent. He also worked on the construction of Catherine Palace which is one of the most extravagant palace sin the world. Winter Palace is yet another primarypiece that Rastrelli worked on.
Neoclassical architects became the pioneers of neoclassical architecture. Neoclassical architecture was a reaction against Baroque and Rococo architecture’s excessive ornamentation. It recreated the order and style of Ancient Rome and Greece. It originated in France.
39. Jacques Germain Soufflot
Jacques Germain Soufflot was one of the earliest representatives of the neoclassical style in architecture. He was born in Irancy. He attended the French Academy in Rome. Jacques Germain Soufflot studied classical monuments, Renaissance architecture by architects like Andrea Palladio, and also studied baroque architecture examples like St. Peter’s Basilica.
Soufflot is best known for his primarypiece, The Pantheon in Paris. It is the best example of 18th-century architecture. It was designed as a church that was dedicated to Sainte Genevieve. It was later converted into a memorial. His designs were simple, severe, spacious, and complete that can be seen in his works like the Loge des Changes and extension of Hotel Dieu.
Jacques Germain Soufflot died in Paris in 1780.
40. Carl Gotthard Langhans
Carl Gotthard Langhans was a great architect who moved away from the Baroque architecture and adapted the new neoclassical architecture. He was the first to introduce the Greek structural designs to Berlin. He also continued to use designs from Baroque and Renaissance architecture in his work.
He was appointed the Chief Building Officer in Breslau. He designed the buildings in Palladian style that were inspired by the work of by Wilhelm Freiherr von Erdmannsdorff at Schloss Worlitz.
He was called to Berlin by Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia in 1788 to design new buildings for the capital. He created the monuments of neoclassical art – Brandenburg Gate, which is the most famous of Langhans’ works. He also designed many theatres including the Royal Theatre in Gendarmenmarkt, Berlin and German National Theatre in Potsdam. Moreover, he was the architect to design the Anatomical Theatre for the Berlin Veterinary School. He also contributed in the construction of Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin, for Friedrich II.
He is still one of the major contributors to architecture in the 18th century.
41. Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Claude Nicolas Ledoux was a French neoclassical architect. He was knowledgeable in architectural theory which he used to not only design domestic structures but for town planning as well. He became known as the utopian because of his visionary plan to make the City of Chaux an ideal city.
He learned the craft from Jacques François Blondel who was a neoclassical architect. He spent four years in Maroon and Champagne provinces where he built bridges, village churches, and schools. He designed many palaces in Paris, such as Hotel d’Halwyll. He also built the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans.
Other major works that he did are:
- Cathedral of Saint-Germaine, Auxerre
- Chateau de Benouville
42. Jean Chalgrin
Jean Chalgrin established a neoclassic orientation during his early studies which were under the supervision of Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni and Étienne-Louis Boullée in Paris. His Prix de Rome sojourn as French Academy’s pensionnaire in Rome also played a major role.
When he returned to Paris, he was appointed an inspector of public works almost immediately, under Pierre-Louis Moreau-Desproux, an architect. He oversaw the construction of Hôtel Saint-Florentin in the rue Saint-Florentin where Chalgrin got an opportunity to design the gateway to the cour d’honneur. He presented the design for Church of St. Philippe-du-Roule which was based on the basilica plan.
He was appointed as the First Architect to the brother of Louis XVI for whom he designed the pavilion of the Comtesse de Provence at Versailles. He was also appointed to supervise the projects for another brother of the king. He remodeled the interior of the Saint Sulpice Church. He was also commissioned to work on the Arc de Triomphe by Napoleon. Chalgrin died while the project was still underway.
43. Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, a lawyer, diplomat, and an architect. He was the third U.S President, the author of The Declaration of American Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia.
Jeffersonian architecture is a form of Neo-Palladianism and/ or Neo-classicism embodied in architecture designs that Thomas Jefferson incorporated in his properties, including the Monticello House- the home where he lived, Poplar Forest- his retreat, and the University of Virginia- a college that he founded. He also designed homes for his political allies and friends, like Barboursville.
Thomas Jefferson built the Monticello House in Virginia which he had wished to from his childhood. He wished to spend his life with his beloved wife in a house that was his childhood dream but unfortunately, his wife died in the 10th year of marriage and could not see the completion of Monticello House. It was this place that he remained mostly during the last seventeen years of his life.
44. Charles Cameron
Charles Cameron was a neoclassical architect who was influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, as well as by the work of Robert Adam. His architectural works are more focused on landscaped gardens and country palaces. He was born in London. His father was a builder and a carpenter. He trained under Isaac Ware who was an architect.
He worked for Empress Catherine the Great, Paul I and Alexander I. Some of his most famous contributions include the Alexander Palace, and the Pavlovsk Palace, Razumovsky Palace. The contemporaries he worked on include Giacomo Quarenghi and the Matvey Kazakov.
45. John Nash
John Nash was born in London. He trained as an architect under Sir Robert Taylor. He started off as an architect at an early age, with his own architecture firm. However, at the age of 25, he was declared bankrupt. He then moved from London to Wales, to be near his mother.
He worked on many prisons, country homes, and church renovations in Wales and moved back to London in 1797. In around 1806, his work caught the attention of Prince Regent, who late became King George IV.
He is best known for his works which are:
- Royal Mews
- Cumberland Terrace
- East Cowes Castle
- Ravensworth Castle
- All Souls Church in Langham
- Mary’s Church Haggerston
- Royal Pavilion in Brighton
- Trafalgar Square
- Buckingham Palace
46. William Thornton
William Thornton is one of the earliest architects of America. He achieved fame during his early years with the US Capitol Building that was designed in the neoclassical architectural style.
He had studied medicine and was a practicing physician in Philadelphia. However, he found the nature of work laborious and disgusting. He had interest in painting and drawing and he ended up submitting his designs to competition for Library Hall for Library Company of Philadelphia. His entry for the competition was selected and he went to Tortola.
He learned about the competition for public buildings in Washington. He proposed a design for the U.S Capitol Building. His drawings were awarded a premium of $500 after recommendations from Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of State and George Washington, the President.
William Thornton was appointed as the superintendent of the Patent Office by President Jefferson. He held this position for 26 years, till his death. He designed two Washington DC residences including the Octagon (John Tayloe III townhouse) and Tudor Palace (Thomas Peter’s villa). Other major architectural works include the Woodlawn Plantation in Virginia.
47. Charles Bulfinch
Charles Bulfinch was an American-born architect. He was the first to practice architecture professionally in Boston. He was well-known for his neoclassical architecture.
His neoclassicism was first seen in his design for Tontine Crescent. Some of his early works include an old Federal Street, the new State House, New England’s first playhouse and the Massachusetts State House.
In Boston, he was the most active architect for 25 years. He had a strong influence on modernizing Boston. He provided new systems fir street-lighting, drainage, and also widened the streets. He was one of the architects in the designing of the U.S Capitol Building. He was the one to complete the wings and the central portion that were unfinished.
48. Benjamin Latrobe
Benjamin Latrobe was born in Leeds, England. He studied engineering under John Smeaton and architecture under Pepys Cockerell. He immigrated to Virginia before he settled in Philadelphia. he designed Bank of Pennsylvania which was the first neoclassical building in the U.S. that displayed Grecian order. He designed the St. John’s Church in Washington D.C.
Benjamin Latrobe was hired by President Jefferson on the position of Surveyor of Public Buildings. He constructed the south wing of the U.S Capitol. He also worked on the President House and the Navy Yard. He reconstructed the interior of the north wing of U.S. Capitol. He was rehired for the restoration work after two wings were damaged from fires by British troops.
He is well-known for the Baltimore Basilica which is a neoclassical primarypiece. Other works include the Fairmount Waterworks, Nassau Hall in Princeton University, the Baltimore Exchange, and Louisiana State Bank.
He died in New Orleans, where he was working on the city’s municipal water system.
49. Sir Robert Smirke
Sir Robert Smirke is one of the many leaders in the Greek revival architecture. He studied drawing and architecture from a very young age. He was a student of the architect, John Soan.
He was made the architect to the Royal Mint which was first official appointment. He was elected Associate of the Royal Academy and later the Royal Academician. His diploma work consisted of a drawing for the reconstruction of the Acropolis of Athens.
He was nominated as an architect for Office of Works along with John Soan and Nash. He then worked o numerous commissions that include the General Post Office, the British Museum, King’s College, the Strand, and the Custom House. He also worked on many private projects like the Convent Garden Theatre in London, the Royal College of Physicians, various churches and four clubs.
He died at an age of 87 in Cheltenham.
50. Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Karl Friedrich Schinkel was a Prussian architect, painter, and a city planner. When he was 14 years old, he had already developed an interest in art. he visited numerous exhibitions and it was in an exhibition that he had an encounter with the architect, Friedrich Gilly. He studied his work and decided to become an architect.
He became Friedrich Gilly’s student and a friend. He designed stages including one for the Magic Flute. Queen of Prussia became aware of his work and he was commissioned to re-design the sleeping chamber for her in the palace. After this commission, Schinkel became the interior designer and the primary builder for the royal family.
He worked on turning Berlin into a representative capital of Prussia while he was the Chief Government Building Surveyor. He was in charge of the projects taking place in Prussian territories, starting from Rhineland to Königsberg. He also built the Museum am Lustgarten in Berlin.
Some of his popular works are:
- Konzerthaus, Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin
- Tegel Palace
- Altes Museum
He was a very important German architect who had a great influence on the subsequent generations of architects, as well as on Modern Art.
19th Century Architects
The work of architects of the 19th Century was influenced by the earlier architectural movements and exotic, foreign styles, along with the new technologies that emerged in the early modern age. The revival of Gothic, Greek, and Renaissance designs were fused with new engineering methods and materials.
51. Sir Charles Barry
Sir Charles Barry was an English architect as well as a fine draughtsman. He studied Renaissance architecture in Florence and Rome. He practiced in London.
He worked on numerous Gothic Revival Churches like St. Peter’s in Brighton and the Holy Trinity in Islington. He worked on the Westminster Palace which is said to have hastened his death due to the immense pressure he had to work under.
Some of his popular works are listed below:
- All Saints, Stand, Manchester
- Houses of Parliament
- The Reform Club in London
- Four preparatory drawings for the Reform Club
- The Traveller’s Club, in London
- The (Former) Athenaeum in Manchester
- The Clock Tower, Mount Felix, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey
- City Art Gallery in Manchester
- Kingston Lacy, Dorset (remodeling)
52. Richard Upjohn
Richard Upjohn was an American architect. He established architectural practices in New York. He also became a leader nationwide in the picturesque mode in architecture in America.
He is known best for his contribution to Gothic Revival church architecture which had a long-lasting influence. He designed the Episcopal churches in North Carolina and the Christ Episcopal Church in Raleigh. He worked with Alexander Paris, an architect in Boston. He made a reputation in New York with the Trinity Episcopal Church which is a landmark for the Gothic Revival in the American architecture of the church.
Another of his popular work is the Bowdoin College Chapel which as a Romanesque-influenced design.
53. Georges-Eugene Haussmann
Georges-Eugene Haussmann is the man who designed Paris. It was Georges-Eugene Haussmann who gave the city of Paris the look that it still flaunts proudly today. He demolished most of the historic buildings with an intention to get rid of the slums and prepare the city for an industrial era. The reforms in Paris that Georges-Eugene Haussmann brought were so expansive that almost everything in Paris today can be traced back to him.
The most prominent of his works that can be seen in Paris are:
- Bois de Boulogne
- Avenue Foch
- Boulevard Haussmann
54. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc
Eugene Viollet-le-Duc was a theorist, writer, and an unconventional designer. He is best known for his restorations of Gothic and Romanesque architecture. He was very well-educated in Italy and France. He was just 24 years of age when he was given the task of restoring La Madeleine at Vezelay Abbey. It was followed by the restoration of Sainte Chapelle and Notre Dame in Paris. The most important of the restoration works he did was the restoration of the historical city of Carcassonne.
He worked on the interior of the Statue of Liberty. He was one of the most significant and influential figures that contributed to 19th-century architecture. He also had a major impact on the development of other styles, including Victorian architecture.
55. James Renwick
James Renwick was one of the most versatile American architects. He studied engineering and was self-taught in architecture.
He submitted a Gothic design for the Grace Church that was to be built in New York and won the competition. This design showed a true understanding of the Gothic style. He also worked on the St. Patrick’s Cathedral in New York City.
Some of his prominent works include the building of Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. and Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C. Saint Bartholomew’s Church and All Saints’ Roman Catholic Church in New York City are also the works of James Renwick.
56. Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was a landscape architect. He has designed most of the picturesque green spaces in Chicago. He studied farming and chemistry and then settled on becoming a landscape architect.
In 1858, he won a competition to design the Central Park in New York, in which he participated with Calvert Vaux. The planners of Riverside were so impressed by their work that the duo was appointed for designing a suburban community that was located 9 miles from Chicago. Olmsted was asked to submit plans for South Park Commission by the Chicago Sanitary Commission. Olmsted and Vaux put forward a proposal which was put on hold as the city recovered from the devastating Great Chicago fire in 1871.
Olmsted worked on many projects such as the University of Chicago, U.S. Capitol’s landscape design, and the Baltimore Estate in North Carolina. He also worked in the conservation movement and contributed to the preservation of the Niagara Falls.
World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago was the shining moment for Olmsted. He, along with Daniel Burnham, designed the South Pak Commission which is Jackson Park today.
57. Calvert Vaux
Calvert Vaux was born in England. He was trained to be an architect from an early age. He came to America for collaboration on landscape projects in Picturesque estate with Andrew Jackson Downing. He collaborated with many designers and landscape architects throughout his career, having the best partnership with Frederick Law Olmsted.
The partnership with Olmsted began with the duo participating in a competition for the design of the Central Park. After winning the competition, they did numerous collaborative projects like Prospect Park in Brooklyn, park systems and parks for Brooklyn and Buffalo, New York State Reservation at Niagara, and South Park in Chicago. Calvert Vaux also worked on many cemeteries, campuses, estate landscapes, and planned communities with Olmsted.
Other projects that Vaux worked on include Trinity Cemetery, Grace Church grounds, Cemetery of the Evergreens, Bryn Mawr College, and the Wisner estate. He was the landscape architect for the New York Department of Public Parks.
58. Charles Garnier
Charles Garnier was born in Paris. He attended atelier of Louis Hippolyte Lebas to study drawing. In 1841, he attended the École des Beaux-Arts. After winning Grand Prix de Rome in 1848, he spent 5 years in Italy.
He participated in a competition for the Opera in Paris in 1861. It was a two-phase competition. Charles Garnier secured the fifth place in the first phase and won the commission in the same year. It took 14 years for the Opera to complete. Charles Garnier also designed the Monte Carlo Casino.
He worked on numerous other projects which include libraries, churches, houses, hotels, and tombs. He designed and constructed the tombs of Bizet and Offenbach.
Charles Garnier did not fit very well into the emerging movements of functionalism. His work was based on theory, as he says in his book. He died in 1898.
59. Richard Morris Hunt
Richard Morris Hunt is regarded as the dean of American architecture. He belonged to a respected family in New England. His family moved to Europe when Richard’s father died. He was the first American student who studied architecture in the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He returned to England to bring European culture and architecture to the United States.
He worked on many buildings including civic buildings, libraries, art museums, and apartment buildings. One of the first commissions that he worked on in New York was the Tenth Street Studio Building in Greenwich Village. He built the Stuyvesant Apartments for American middle class. Roosevelt Building was another of his works in which he experimented with cast-iron facades. He built the New York Tribune Building that was the first skyscraper in New York City and also the first commercial building to have an elevator. He also designed the pedestal for the world famous, Statue of Liberty.
Other popular creations of Richard Morris Hunt include:
- Griswold House
- Marble House
- The Breakers
- Biltmore Estate
60. Gustave Eiffel
Gustave Eiffel was born in France. He was interested in construction from a very early age. he went to École Polytechnique and then to College of Art and Manufacturing 9 École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures) in Paris. He specialized in metal constructions, specifically in bridges.
The first project that Gustave Eiffel worked on was an iron bridge in Bordeaux. In just 6 years from then, he had set up his own company. He designed the arched Gallery of Machines for an exhibition that was to be held in Paris, which further solidified his reputation. He designed the Ponte Maria Pia Bridge which was a 525-foot arched bridge over the Douro River in Portugal. He also has the credit to have built the Garabit viaduct Truyère in France.
Other projects that he worked on include the dome of Nice, an astronomical observatory in France, and the magnificent Statue of Liberty. Eiffel was hired after the initial engineer, Eugene Viollet-le-Duc died.
What marked Eiffel’s name to history forever was the Eiffel Tower in Paris. It is a magnificent structure of that Gustave Eiffel built only in two years!
61. William Le Baron Jenney
William Le Baron Jenney was not just an architect, but also an engineer, a park and town planner, and an innovator in the building technology. The founder of the Chicago School of Skyscraper Architecture, William Le Barron Jenney pioneered the concept of high-rise skyscraper architecture.
One of the first commissions he worked on in Chicago was West Parks. However, he is known best for the Home Insurance Building in Chicago which is 10 floors high. It was the first building in America which had a metal frame instead of a stone and brick one to support the upper levels. Ludington Building in Chicago is another example of such a high-rise building. Other works include First Leiter Building and the Second Leiter Building, the latter being an exemplary 19th-century architectural primarypiece.
62. George Brown Post
George Brown Post was born in New York City, in a very well-off family. He got his education from New York University. He graduated from the university’s engineering department, with a major in civil engineering and architecture.
He turned down the offer of being a mathematics professor at New York University to join the apprenticeship of a great architect, Richard Morris Hunt. After spending some time in the military, he returned to his apprenticeship. He worked on many projects with his co-apprentice but then went on his own.
Although he had lost the competition for the design of Equitable Life Insurance Society Building that was to be built in Manhattan, the panel was so impressed that they appointed him the consulting engineer and the project architect for the project. He brought a lot of structural changes to the winning design by Gilman & Kendall. It was the first 8-floors building that had an elevator installed. Post also worked when the building was being expanded.
George Brown Post also designed the three buildings for College of New Jersey which were the Bonner-Marquand Gymnasium, Dickenson Hall (a classroom), and Reunion Hall (a dorm). None of these buildings are standing today.
It was George Brown Post who built the New York Stock Exchange, the Williamsburgh Savings Bank, and the Long Island Historical Society Building.
63. Henry Hobson Richardson
Henry Hobson Richardson was born in Louisiana. He studied civil engineering at Harvard College and Tulane University. He was the second American, after Richard Morris Hunt, to study architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
His work was more of Romanesque architecture rather than neoclassical or Gothic Revival architecture. When he returned to the United States from Paris, he started his professional practice independently. The first commission that he worked on was the Unity Church in Springfield, Massachusetts.
He experimented with many styles. He designed a huge structure that was built out of Medina sandstone, the New York State Asylum in Buffalo. Today, it is called the H.H Richardson Complex. He worked on Brattle Square Church in Boston, and the Trinity Church which was his primarypiece.
He also designed many urban houses, the most popular ones include John Hay and Henry Adams houses in Washington DC and the John J. Glessner House in Chicago. Most famous of all was the Mary Fisk Stoughton House and the Henry Potter House.
Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail and Marshall Field Wholesale Store are also the works of Henry Hobson Richardson.
64. Otto Wagner
It won’t be wrong to say that Otto Wagner defined the concept of modernity. He was the one who helped in building a modern world. he was an Austrian architect who is considered as one of the most important contributors to the early modernist architecture.
Architecture in the era when Otto Wagner lived was detailed, ornate, and decorative. He used to speak openly against the revivalist movements.
Some of his major works include the Majolika Hous. It was made from weather-proof tiles and had floral designs on the façade. Although its shape is straight and flat, it is still considered Art Nouveau. He was also commissioned for building the Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station in Vienna. Austrian Postal Savings Bank, Banking Hall, Inside the Austrian Postal Savings Bank, and the Church of St. Leopold are all bagged by Otto Wagner. Two of his residences, Villa I and Villa II for each of his wives respectively amazing examples of his incredible work too!
65. Antoni Gaudi
Antoni Gaudi was a Spanish architect, born in Spain. He developed an interest in architecture at an early age. he graduated from Provincial School of Architecture. Antoni Gaudi put up an impressive showcase at the Paris World’s Affair in 1878 which impressed one patron so much that Antoni Gaudi ended up working on Güell Estate and Güell Palace. He also worked on the construction of Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family.
Some other impressive works he did include Episcopal Palace (and the Casa de Los Botines, both Gothic and the Casa Calvet. Antoni Gaudi used his equilibrated system to construct apartment buildings in Barcelona which were the Casa Milà and the Casa Batlló.
The last project Antoni Gaudi worked on was the Sagrada Familia which wasn’t completed by the time he died. It is still not complete today.
66. Cass Gilbert
Cass Gilbert is an architect from America, who built some of the finest buildings that still stand in America today. When he was 17 years old, Abraham M. Radcliffe, an architect from Minnesota, hired him. After many years, Cass Gilbert earned a degree in architecture from MIT.
CASS Gilbert worked on many buildings including Minnesota State Capital Building. He moved to New York where he was commissioned to design and construct Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House. He was then elected the president of the American Institute of Architects.
He designed the Spalding Building, St. Louis Library, Alien Art Museum, Detroit Public Library, and Thurgood Marshal United States Courthouse. Cass Gilbert worked until he died. Before he died, he designed plans for the United States Supreme Court Building,
67. Victor Horta
Victor Horta was a Belgian architect who was born in Ghent. He studied architecture at Académie des Beaux-Arts. His work is the most important of examples of the Art Nouveau. Although most of the work by Victor Horta can be seen in Beaux Arts style it is Art Nouveau work that makes him beloved. Most of his Art Nouveau work includes townhouses that he built for the Belgian elite.
He designed my private houses and public buildings in Brussels. He used cast iron for decorative and structural reasons. He built the Hotel Tassel, Maison Autrique, Maison Winssinge, Hôtel Eetvelde, and Maison du Peuple. His works also include “À l’Innovation” which was a department store. In subsequent years, he distanced himself from Art nouveau and designed buildings in a more neo-classical style which is exemplified by the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels.
68. Joseph Maria Olbrich
Joseph Maria Olbrich was an Austrian architect. He studied architecture at the renowned Wiener Staatsgewerbeschule and the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna.
He worked for Otto Wagner and it is said that it was Joseph Maria Olbrich who did the detailed construction for most of the Wiener Stadtbahn (Metropolitan Railway) buildings by Otto Wagner. He also designed the Succession Hall Building which is now the landmark of the movement.
He worked on many other fields including furniture, pottery, musical instruments, and book bindings. One of his famous creations includes the Wedding Tower in Darmstadt.
69. Hector Guimard
Hector Guimard was a designer and an engineer. His work is an outstanding example of Art Nouveau. He was a key figure in the 19th-century architecture and is considered as a pioneer of modern design. He applied modern construction techniques and innovative materials in his work. He made use of steel, iron, and glass in many of his works.
Example of his modern art includes the Castle Beranger in Paris which is an apartment complex. Other of his works that are popular include Humbert de Romans auditorium, Coilliot house, La Bluette, Castel Henriette, Nozal Hotel, and Castel d’Orgeval. He is most famous for the revolutionary entrances to the Paris Metro, having perfectly interwoven plant and animal shapes.
70. Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was a modern architect whose work depicted modern style. He has the credits for designing numerous iconic buildings. After he finished college, he became the chief assistant to Louis Sullivan, an architect. He developed his own architectural firm later which focused on organic architecture in commercial buildings and homes.
He designed more than 1100 buildings during his lifetime. The first architectural primary piece that Frank Lloyd Wright was his own home in Chicago which is now called the Frank Lloyd Wright home and studio. He started private practice under the name Prairie School in this residential studio after he left Adler and Sullivan in 1893.
He designed the Winslow House in River Forest. Over the next years, he worked on many public buildings and residences including the Unity Temple in Oak Park and Robie House in Chicago.
After 20 years of his marriage, he abandoned his family and moved to Germany with the wife of a client, where he put two portfolios together. This established an international profile for Frank Lloyd Wright.
Upon his return to the United States, he designed what became one of his most acclaimed works – Taliesin, Welsh which was a home he built for himself and Mamah Borthwick Cheney, the woman he had moved to Germany earlier.
He was commissioned by a Japanese emperor to build the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. He claimed that the structure he spent 7 years on was earthquake-proof and in the Great Kanto Earthquake, the Imperial Hotel was the only large structure that survived the massive impact!
In 1932, he founded Taliesin Fellowship which was an architectural school that he started from his Taliesin residence. Taliesin Fellowship was housed in Taliesin West during winter months, which his he built 5 years later with his apprentices.
At about 70 years of age, he made a dramatic entrance to the profession by his greatest building, the Fallingwater, which was a residence for the acclaimed Kaufmann family of Pittsburgh. He designed the SC Johnson Wax Administration Building in Wisconsin. He also designed the stunning Monona Terrace (which could not be constructed due to lack of funds), and Guggenheim Museum in New York City.
See Frank Lloyd Wright’s houses (with detailed write-up).
71. Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh studied architecture and technical drawing. He was an intern with John Hutchinson, who was a renowned architect. He received numerous challenging commissions during his internship.
His architectural works include Glasgow School of Art, International Exhibition in Glasgow Haus eines Kunstfreundes, Windyhill in Kilmacolm, Hill House in Helensburgh, the Willow Tea Rooms, Glasgow, and Scotland Street School. The Mackintosh House situated in Glasgow was reconstructed and it was opened to the public as a museum in the late 1970s.
72. Peter Behrens
Peter Behrens is considered the pioneer of corporate design and modernist architecture. He was born in Hamburg. He joined utopian Darmstadt artist colony that was set up by the Grand duke of Hesse, Ernst Ludwig. While he was there, he designed his own home which gave him the encouragement to start working as an architect.
His famous works include AEG Turbine Factory, German Embassy in St Petersburg, and Hoechst Dye Factory, Admin Building in Frankfurt.
73. Adolf Loos
Adolf Loos was an Austrian architect who grew up in Germany. He was against the use of ornamentals and design in architecture because he found it immature and childish.
Adolf Loos did not design many buildings himself. One of his earliest primarypieces includes the Café Museum. Other works of Adolf Loos include the Loos House, Hais Steiner, Haus Scheu, and Haus Rufer. He designed the Chicago Tribune Tower and the house in Paris for Tristan Tzara.
74. Burnham and Root
Burnham and Root are one of the top architectural firms that were set up by Daniel Hudson Burnham and John Wellborn Root. It was a key influence on the Chicago School of Architecture. Burnham and Root met each other during the apprenticeship at an architectural firm of Carter, Drake, and Wight in Chicago.
The early buildings that they worked on were homes for wealthy people but hey started designing tall buildings soon. The popular architectural works that the duo pulled together include Rookery Building, Rand McNally Building, and Monadnock Building, all in Chicago.
75. Holabird & Roche
William Holabird and Martin Roche were architects who were working as apprentices with William Le Baron Jennery who worked on the designing and building of tall buildings. The two architects decided to start their practice and in 1880, Holabird and Roche (the current name) were established.
They constructed numerous tall, commercial buildings in Chicago including the Marquette Building, the southern half of Monadnock Building, the Old Colony Building, Brookes Building, and the Chicago Building which is the Chicago Savings Bank Building. In a short span of time, skyscrapers designed and built by Holabird and Roche dotted the skylines of the cities all over the Midwest. They constructed many historically-inspired buildings which include County Building or Chicago’s City Hall, the University Club, and the Chicago Temple.
76. Adler and Sullivan
The two architects during the late 19th century, Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan teamed up to create waves in the architecture. They produced American architecture that was simple and featured steel fame walls and modern forms. Their partnership was the most influential and famous in American architecture. They were considered the fathers of the modern skyscrapers.
The most significant works by the duo include the Auditorium Building, the Schiller/Garrick, the Chicago Stock Exchange Building, the Wainwright Building in St. Louis, and the Guaranty Building in New York.
Some of the primarypieces that Louis Sullivan worked alone include the Schlesinger & Mayer store which was later known as Carson Pirie Scott and the Bayard Building in New York.
77. Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius is one of the pioneers of modern architecture and the founder of Bauhaus, which is an architecture school in Germany. This German architect designed and developed several architectural primarypieces that are still standing today.
The major works that Walter Gropius did include The Fagus Factory, Sommerfeld House, and Monument to the March Dead. Bauhaus Complex in Dessau, Gropius House in Massachusetts, the Graduate Center at Harvard University, the Pan American Building in New York City, and the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building in Boston are all Walter Gropius’s contributions to American architecture.
20th Century Architects
In the 20th century, architecture observed modernism. With rapid economic development and urbanization, the architecture saw new forms, having little or no ornamentation. The structures were made more practical and functional and made-made materials like steel were used excessively. The architects who adapted to the modernization in the 20th century were successful in pulling off primarypieces that formed the basis of modern architecture.
78. Erich Mendelsohn
Erich Mendelsohn was a German architect and also the pioneer of modern architecture. He incorporated functionalism in his projects. He was born in Prussia and received training in architecture in Berlin and Munich.
The first major commission that Erich Mendelsohn bagged was the Einstein Tower in Potsdam. The structure was a perfect expression of abstract architecture and sculptural expressionism. When he started turning away from free-flowing designs, he created the Steinberg Hat Factory in Luckenwalde, Germany which is an example of the new direction he took in architecture.
The most important British design that Erich Mendelsohn worked on was the De La Warr Pavilion at Bexhill-On-Sea. He executed many important buildings in Palestine which include University Medical Center in Jerusalem and a hospital at Haifa.
His American works include Maimonides Hospital -San Francisco. His works in Midwest include St. Louis Mo in Ohio, Grand Rapids in Mich, and St. Paul in Minn.
79. Charles-Edouard Jeanneret
Charles Edouard Jeanneret was a Swiss-born architect. He joined his father in trade at the age of 13 and went to Europe on a trip upon the advice of Charles L’Eplattenier, who decided that Charles Edouard should become an architect. After working in many architectural offices in Paris, Vienna, and Berlin, under renowned architects, returned to home town and continued his architectural studies.
One of his earliest designs includes the one for the Domino House, the design of which became the template for the next decade. After setting up his own studio in Paris in 1922, Le Corbusier designed many houses and villas which include Citrohan House, and the villas built for Ozenfant, Raoul La Roche, Michael Stein and the Villa Lipchitz, Maison Planeix, Maison Cook, and his primarywork Savoye House. He also produced large-scale housing projects like Immeubles Villas.
Other popular works include:
- Army Hostel
- Swiss Dormitory at the City University
- Unite d’Habitation, Marseilles
- Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France
- La Tourette Monastery, Evreux-sur-l’Arbesle
- Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp
80. Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was born in Germany. He was one of the most influential architects who lived in the 20th century. He developed the most enduring style of architecture which was modernism. The minimalist style of Mies van der Rohe was very popular for almost a century. He started his career at Peter Behrens’s studio.
His fame was cemented in 1921 when he proposed the design of the Friedrichstraße skyscraper which was an all-glass tower and in 1929 by the German Pavilion at Barcelona Exposition. It remains one of the most popular and well-known of his works even today.
After the influence of Nazis continued to grow, finding work in Germany became difficult. Mies went to the United States. He settled in Chicago where was made the head of Illinois Institute of Technology. He worked on exemplary projects such as the Seagram Building and the 860-880 Lakeshore Drive. He also designed the Farnsworth House and the Chicago Federal Center.
81. Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto was born in Finland. He designed buildings for many public institutions and also worked on private homes and standardized housing. He was a popular furniture designer. Artek was established so that sales of Aalto furniture could be promoted.
One of the major milestones for Alvar Aalto was the Paimio Sanatorium. He designed many public buildings including Säynätsalo Town Hall, the Jyväskylä Institute of Pedagogics and the House of Culture in Helsinki. The most notable urban designs include Seinäjoki city center, Rovaniemi city center and the Jyväskylä administrative and cultural center which was only partly built.
Alvar Aalto also worked on many projects, both public and private, outside Finland as well. Most prominent works by Alvar Aalto include:
- City Library, Vyborg, Russia
- Villa Mairea, Noormarkku, Finland
- Finnish Church of the Holy Ghost, Wolfsburg, Germany
82. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
The westerners, Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill establish SOM in the 1930s in Chicago. The firm was established when the city was trying to establish itself taller and bigger than New York. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill worked on numerous projects, not only in Chicago but throughout the world that are all primarypieces of modern architecture.
The most prominent works by the firm include the following:
- Manhattan House, New York
- Lever House, New York
- One Chase Manhattan Plaza, New York
- Cadet Chapel, Colorado
- John Hancock Center, Chicago
- The Willis Tower in Chicago
- Chase Tower, Dallas
- Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai
- Time Warner Center, New York
- Jianianhua Centre, China
- Burj Khalifa, Dubai
- One World Trade Center, New York
- Denver Union Station, Denver
83. Louis Kahn
Louis Kahn was one of the greatest architects of the 20th century who fused modernism with the dignity and weigh of ancient monuments. He was born in Parnu which is now Estonia. His family moved to Philadelphia where he lived for the rest of his life. Most of his architectural works are also found there.
His initial interest was in medieval architecture. It wasn’t until he turned 50 that his interest in modern architecture developed. He delivered many successful, well-known projects in different parts of the world. Some of them are the following:
- Salk Institute, Jolla, California
- National Assembly Building, Dhaka, Bangladesh
- Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas
- Four Freedoms Park, New York (design discovered after his death)
84. Philip Johnson
Philip Johnson was born in Ohio. He was a critic, author, museum director, historian, but not an architect before he designed his first building. With time, he became one of the most potent forces in modern architecture.
As a part of his primary degree thesis, he designed his residence in New Canaan which is now the world famous, Glass House. he was the one to organize the first visits of Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier’s first visits to the country. He commissioned Mies van der Rohe to design his apartment in New York. Later, he collaborated with Mies for the designing and construction of the Seagram Building in New York, which is the finest high-rise building of the continent. The most controversial project of his career was the AT&T headquarters in New York with the “Chippendale” top.
The list of his projects that are known to the world today include:
- International Place, Boston
- Tycon Towers, Vienna
- Momentum Place, Dallas
- 53rdat Third, New York
- NCNB Center, Houston
- Crystal Cathedral, California
- Water Garden, Fort Worth
85. Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Niemeyer was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and studied architecture. He became the most famous Brazilian architects during the 20th century.
Oscar Niemeyer designed the Brazilian Pavilion for the World’s Fair in New York in collaboration with Lucio Costa. He was involved in the design and construction of the Ministry of Education and Health, after which his architectural career blossomed.
He collaborated with Le Corbusier to design the United Nations Headquarters in New York. His residence in Rio de Janeiro became a landmark itself. He also designed the Aeronautical Research Center. He worked on an office building in Europe for Renault and the Communist Party Headquarters in Paris.
Other works include Le Havre’s cultural center, the Mondadori Editorial Office in Milan and FATA Office Building in Turin. He was also involved in the design of Zoological Gardens, the Foreign Office, and the University of Constantine. Metropolitan Cathedral, Brasilia and Palacio do Itamaraty, Brasilia are also his works.
86. Eero Saarinen
Eero Saarinen was a Finnish architect, born to Eliel Saarinen who was a well-establish Finnish architect. His family moved to the United States when he was only 12 years old.
Being overweight and dyslexic, Eero Saarinen could not receive proper schooling. He was sent to Paris for one year at Académie de la Grande Chaumière after which he received his degree of Bachelor of Arts from Yale.
Initially, he worked with his father but after his father died, he opened his own firm. He focused on utilizing a newer technique for construction and creating architecture that had some sort of visual effect.
Other than this Saarinen Collection in furniture, he produced a number of architectural primarypieces like TWA Terminal at New York’s J.F Kennedy Airport AND Dulles International Airport in Washington D.C. He also designed the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis, Missouri and the Kresge Auditorium at MIT, Cambridge.
87. Kenzo Tange
Kenzo Tange was a Japanese architect who was one of the very important architects of the 20th century. He fused the Japanese styles with modernism and designed many prominent and important buildings in five continents.
Kenzo Tange participated in a competition in 1942 for the design of the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere Memorial Hall. He was awarded the first prize, for the design that would be situated at the base of Mount Fuji. However, what he conceived was a fusion of plaza on Capitoline Hill in Rome and Shinto shrine architecture. Hence, the design was not realized.
The highlights of his architectural career include the following buildings:
- Hiroshima Peace Centre, Hiroshima, Japan
- Yamanashi Press and Radio Centre, Kofu, Japan
- Tokyo Olympic Stadium, Japan
88. Ieoh Ming Pei (I.M Pei)
Ieoh Ming Pei is a Chinese-American architect is said to be the greatest modernist architect. He won the Pritzker Price in 1963. The jury stated that he had given some of the most beautiful exterior forms and interior spaces to the century. He was born in China but grew up in Hong Kong.
He had his own practice with the name I.M. Pei & Associates. The most well-known work of his firm is the crystalline extension of the world-famous Louvre in Paris. Other works that are quite influential include Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong, JFK Presidential Library in Boston, – John Hancock Building, Boston, and the East Building of National Art Gallery Of Art in Washington D.C.
89. Jorn Oberg Utzon
John Oberg Utzon took education from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. He worked beside Alvar Aalto, who was his primary. He is considered as one of the most important architects that lived in the second half of the 20th century.
He settled in Copenhagen where he had his own studio. He won the Pritzker prize for the most important project of his career- Sydney Opera House.
Other works that he well known for include:
- The Kingo Houses, Helsingor
- Bagsvaerd Church, Copenhagen
90. Sir James Stirling
Sir James Stirling was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He is known for his controversial designs of multiunit houses and public buildings. He received education in architecture from Architecture, University of Liverpool. He started work during the early 1950s. He worked in partnership with James Gowan for 7 years and with Michael Wilford from 1971 onwards.
The early works that he did included low-rise houses in New Brutalist style. The most important work that he did was the Engineering Department Building at the University of Leicester.
He brought unconventional axes, brightly colored elements, and complex geometric shapes in his designs which can be seen in the New State Gallery that he worked on in Stuttgart, Germany. It is one of his finest achievements. Other works include Fogg Art Museum and Arthur M. Museum at Harvard University, and Clore Gallery at Tate Britain in London.
He was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1981. He was knighted shortly after he died.
91. Venturi, Rauch & Scott-Brown
Venturi, Rauch, and Scott-Brown is an architectural firm based in Philadelphia which was established by postmodernist architects- Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and John Rauch.
These architects established their firm with a philosophy of social planning, environmental responsibility, and contextual design. The firm is involved in urban planning, residences, museums, decorative arts, and academic planning.
The major works that the trio of architects has successfully pulled off include:
- Freedom Plaza in Washington, D.C.
- Washington Avenue district in Miami Beach, Florida
- The Strand in Galveston, Texas
- Vanna Venturi House, Pennsylvania
- Guild House Retirement Home, Philadelphia
- Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College
- Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego
92. Frank O. Gehry
Frank O. Gehry was born in Canada. He took his education from the University of Southern California and the Harvard Graduate School of Design.
He started off with his career by working for Victor Gruen Associates and for Pereira and Luckman. He had a brief stint in Paris after which he returned to California and established his own firm. He won the Pritzker Prize in 1989.
The most prominent of works by Frank Gehry include the following:
- California Aerospace Museum, Los Angeles
- Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles
- Weisman Museum, Minneapolis
- Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
- Nationale Nederlanden Building, Prague
- Experience Music Project, Seattle
93. Fazlur Khan
Fazlur Khan was a structural engineer and designer who was born in Bangladesh. He was involved in the construction of extremely tall skyscrapers.
He developed many structural systems that lead to the revolution in the construction of high-rise towers. His works include the Willis Tower (110-story) and John Hancock Center (100-story). He is considered as the Father of tubular designs for skyscrapers.
He was a partner in the firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill which is the firm of American architects. Fazlur Khan also designed many of other important buildings which include the Haj Terminal, at Jeddah Airport Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Other major contributions to 20th-century architecture include:
- The United States Air Force Academy, Colorado
- One Magnificent Mile, Chicago
94. Aldo Rossi
Aldo Rossi was a theorist, artist, author, teacher, and an architect. He was born in Italy but has left a mark of his influence all over the world. He received his Architecture degree from Milan Polytechnic University in 1959. He was an editor of Casabella, an architectural magazine for 9 years.
He contributed greatly to the 20th-century modern architecture. The most popular of his works include Teatro del Mondo (a floating theatre), the Carlo Felice Theatre which is the National Opera House in Genoa and the Toronto Lighthouse Theatre on the banks of Lake Ontario in Canada. He also built the Gallaratese housing complex, Pocono Pines Houses in Pocono, new School of Architecture in the University of Miami, St Cataldo Cemetery in Modena, and Cirque de Soleil House in Berlin. He won the Pritzker Prize in 1990.
95. Richard Rogers
Richard Rogers is among the most innovative and distinctive architects of the 20th century. He is one of the leading architects during the British High-Tech movement. He was born in Florence. He attended the Architectural Association in London and then went to Yale University. He met Brit Norman Foster at Yale and after graduating, the two joined hands with Su Brumwell and Wendy Cheeseman and established Team 4 in 1963. Their collaboration as Team 4 just lasted for 4 years but during this time, they contributed greatly to British architecture. After Team 4 got disbanded, he collaborated with Renzo Piano which was very fruitful.
The most important of Richard Roger’s works include:
- Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris (with Renzo Piano)
- Lloyds of London
96. Richard Meier
Richard Meier is an American architect who focused on open space, pure geometry, and light. After working with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and Marcel Breuer during the beginning of his career, he formed in own firm.
One of his early works on the Smith House received a lot of criticism since it was his first white building that he built upon Le Corbusier’s modernism. He received greater attention for the Douglas House.
After the success of the series of private residences, he received numerous public commissions. These commissions included:
- Atheneum New Harmony, Indiana
- Museum of Decorative Arts Germany
- High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia
- City Hall and Library in The Hague, Netherlands
- Museum of Contemporary Art in Barcelona, Spain.
- Getty Center in Los Angeles
- Eli and Edythe Broad Art, north campus of the University of California, Los Angeles
97. Sir Norman Foster
Sir Norman Foster was born in Manchester. He is a British designer and an architect who is active in London. He has a diverse experience and his contribution to modern architecture is massive. He has designed offices, skyscrapers, stadiums, airports, galleries, parliament buildings, city primary plans, and a spaceport.
He won a Pritzker Price in 1999. He is truly devoted to architectural technology and this devotion has helped him earn a place in the High-Tech movement. He has designed incredible buildings such as the headquarters of Willis Faber & Dumas and the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts.
Other major architectural works that Sir Norman Foster has worked on include:
- Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters in Hong Kong
- Reichstag Dom in Berlin
- 30 St Mary Axe, London (the Gherkin)
98. Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano is an Italian architect. He was born in Genoa. He belongs to a family of builders, but he chose design instead. He studied architecture in Milan. He worked for Louis Kahn and Richard Rogers, leading to Piano getting success quite early in his career. He participated in the competition for the design of Centre Pompidou and won. After completing work at the Centre Pompidou, he founded his own firm, Renzo Piano Building Workshop after spending 4 years with Peter Rice, an engineer.
With Centre Pompidou, he received commissions for many museums. Some of his most prominent works include the Menil Collection and Whitney Museum of American Art. He has also designed and constructed Louis Kahn’s Kimbell Art Museum and the Carpenter Center at Harvard.
He received the Pritzker Prize in 1998. He was praised by the jury for his projects including Kansai Airport Terminal in Osaka and Shard in London.
99. Albert Speer
Albert Speer was born in Germany. He studied architecture at the Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe. He later went to Universities of Berlin and Munich.
He believed that Hitler could restore the glory that the German Empire had lost during the Weimar Republic. He prepared creative stages for Nazi events. He designed many decorations, monuments and parade grounds at Nuremberg. These parade grounds were captured in a film Triumph of the Will by Leni Riefenstahl. He was selected by Hitler to construct Reich Chancellory in Berlin, the Party Palace in Nuremberg, and for the refurbishment of Berlin.
He was imprisoned for 20 years for aiding Nazis war crimes and numerous crimes against humanity. He died in London in 1981.
100. Hassan Fathy
Hassan Fathy was an Egyptian architect who brought a larger audience to the vernacular architecture of Egypt. He used local construction methods and materials to create architecture that was economically and socially suited to the people.
One of the most important projects that Hassan Fathy worked on was the town of New Gourna. His work near the town of New Baris is also a notable contribution of Hassan Fathy to Egyptian architecture.
Architecture has seen numerous variations and modifications since the 16th century up until the 20th century. Starting from extensive ornamentation and settling on simplistic, minimalist, and modern architecture, architecture has seen waves of transformations!