It’s time to start getting curious about trees. These gentle giants have been our neighbours for as long as the human race has existed. They live a life different in function and purpose, but the surviving elements between us are strikingly similar.
Trees live on an entirely different time scale than we do. Old growth forests prove to us that trees can outlive us tenfold, and this patience is exactly what allows them to thrive. But if we get down to the nitty gritty, we discover that just like us, trees communicate, eat, exist in families, learn, adapt, thrive, and perish. Only each minute for us, is extended to a year for them.
So in celebration of trees, we thought it necessary to dive in to a very small fraction of some incredible trees. Diverse, resilient, and incredible, welcome to 101 Types of Trees.
The Life of Trees
You’ve seen a tree before, but do you know why they are shaped in the way they are? Let’s begin with what is going on under the soil.
Trees are able to stand so tall thanks to their root systems. Depending on the variety of tree, the roots may grow very deep into the soil to provide the required support for the heavy trunk and branches above, or the roots grow shallow in the soil, but spread out widely. Root systems are in place not only to provide support, but that is how trees access the water and nutrients from the soil. Roots suck up water from the soil through osmosis, and then transport it all throughout the body of the tree — all the way up to the leaves in the sky.
The trunk of a tree is made up of woody tissue that provides strength, stability, and flex, as well as vascular tissue that helps transport water and nutrients to all the members of the tree. Most trees are covered with a layer of bark that helps provide a protective shield for the vulnerable and valuable parts underneath.
As we move upwards, we find ourselves in the canopy or the crown of the tree. This is where branches reach out from the trunk, and sometimes these branches are then divided inter smaller shoots. Different tree species only have branches at the very top of their trunk, whereas other species have branches that grow out of the entire length of the trunk.
At the end of the branches and shoots are where we find leaves or needles. The leaves are able to capture energy from the sun, and photosynthesize to convert water into sugar (tree food!).
You can think of a forest of trees as capillaries in your lungs. Trees are the reason why humans and animals are able to breathe. They take carbon dioxide out of the air, and turn it into oxygen. The fewer trees there are on the planet, the more carbon dioxide there will be in the atmosphere. The deforestation of the planet is a major cause in climate change.
Trees also help keep the ground in its place. Deep and ancient root systems prevent the earth from eroding or washing away during severe storms. Trees provide shelter and nutrients for many animals and insects. For humans they provide food, field, shade, construction materials, and much more.
Trees as Individuals
All of this is well and good, but it is also important to view trees as entities of their own, where their primary function is not serve humans. Trees exist in communities. They support each other, they communicate, they learn, they adapt, they thrive, and they perish.
Our survival in inextricable from theirs, but their survival is entirely separate from humans. So in an effort to celebrate the life of trees, we’ve compiled a list of 101 varieties of tree (out of millions).
Table of Contents
- The Life of Trees
- Two Main Categories
- Types of Deciduous Trees
- 1. The Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis)
- 2. The Black Ash Tree (Fraxinus nigra)
- 3. The White Ash Tree (Fraxinus americana)
- 4. The Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica)
- 5. The Bigtooth Aspen Tree (Populus grandidentata)
- 6. The Quaking Aspen Tree (Populus tremula)
- 7. The Mahogany Tree (Swietenia mahagoni)
- 8. The Basswood Tree (Tilia americana)
- 9. The American Beech Tree (Fagus grandifolia)
- 10. The Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)
- Birch Trees
- 11. The Black Birch Tree (Betula lenta)
- 12. The Gray Birch Tree (Betula populifolia)
- 13. The Paper Birch Tree (Betula papyrifera)
- 14. The Yellow Birch Tree (Betula alleghaniensis)
- 15. The Butternut Tree (Juglans cinerea)
- 16. The Black Cherry Tree (Prunus serotina)
- 17. The Pin Cherry Tree (Prunus pensylvanica)
- 18. The American Chestnut Tree (Castanea dentata)
- 19. The Eastern Cottonwood Tree (Populus deltoides)
- 20. The Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata)
- Elm Trees
- 21. The American Elm Tree (Ulmus americana)
- 22. The English Elm Tree (Ulmus minor ‘Atinia’)
- 23. The Slippery Elm Tree (Ulmus rubra)
- 24. The Hawthorn Tree (Crataegus)
- 25. The Black Locust Tree (Robinia Pseudoacacia)
- 26. The Honey Locust Tree (Gleditsia triacanthos)
- Hickory Trees
- 27. The Bitternut Hickory Tree (Carya cordiformis)
- 28. The Pignut Hickory Tree (Carya glabra)
- 29. The Shagbark Hickory Tree (Carya ovata)
- 30. The American Hophornbeam Tree (Ostrya virginiana)
- 31.The American Hornbeam Tree (Carpinus caroliniana)
- 32. The Tamarack Tree (or American Larch) (Larix laricina)
- 33. The European Larch Tree (Larix decidua)
- Maple Trees
- 34. The Red Maple Tree (Acer rubrum)
- 35. The Silver Maple Tree (Acer saccharinum)
- 36. The Sugar Maple Tree (Acer saccharum)
- Oak Trees
- 37. The Black Oak Tree (Quercus velutina)
- 38. The Chestnut Oak Tree (Quercus Montana)
- 39. The Northern Red Oak Tree (Quercus rubra)
- 40. The Scarlet Oak Tree (Quercus coccinea)
- 41. The White Oak Tree (Quercus alba)
- 42. The Eastern White Pine Tree (Pinus strobes)
- 43. The Sassafras Tree (Sassafras albidum)
- 44. The Shadbush Tree (Amelanchier Canadensis)
- 45. The Black Walnut Tree (Juglans nigra)
- 46. The Black Willow Tree (Salix nigra)
- 47. The Dogwood Tree (Cornus florida)
- Types of Coniferous Trees
- 48. The Eucalyptus Tree (Eucalyptus)
- 49. The Balsam Fir Tree (Abies balsamea)
- 50. The Eastern Hemlock Tree (Tsuga Canadensis)
- 51. The Pitch Pine Tree (Pinus rigida)
- 52. The Red Pine Tree (Pinus resinosa)
- 53. The Scots Pine Tree (Pinus sylvestris)
- 54. The Eastern Red Cedar Tree (Juniperus virginiana)
- 55. The Red Spruce Tree (Picea rubens)
- 56. The White Spruce Tree (Picea glauca)
- 57. The Sycamore Tree (Platanus occidentalis)
Two Main Categories
For the sake of organization, we’ve divided the trees into two main categories: deciduous trees, and coniferous trees.
Deciduous trees are also referred to as hardwoods; this type of tree has leaves that will change color and eventually shed come fall time. The tree will be bare for the entire winter. Once spring arrives, new leaves will take their place.
Coniferous trees are also referred to as evergreens, meaning that they will be green all year round despite the changing seasons. Although some varieties of coniferous trees do shed their leaves, it is not an annual or seasonal occurrence. It is usually due to an unexpected environmental happening.
Coniferous trees possess needles and cones instead of flat and delicate leaves.
But the question then arises “what is the importance of understanding the different types?”
If you are looking into landscaping of any space, it is important to know what the trees will look during the different seasons. Since trees are what ultimately add beauty to a garden because of their glorious outlook, it is important to plant a mix of deciduous and coniferous trees. Apart from the aesthetics, having trees placed correctly lessens the cooling and heating costs.
Otherwise, it is worth it to learn about different types of trees simply to gain more knowledge about our slow and silent neighbors. The art of tree and plant identification is a dying skill, but it is time for it to be revived! Being armored with this kind of information allows one to feel prepared when on forest walks, and encourages deeper curiosity for the things we see every day.
Types of Deciduous Trees
1. The Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis)
The banyan tree both a deciduous and evergreen tree. When fall comes, the leaves do not change color but merely fall off. The banyan is part of the fig tree family, and it bears fruit in the form of a syconium (this is an enlarged, pitless fruit with multiple ovaries inside).
Native to tropical and subtropical climates, the banyan tree is usually found in places like Pakistan, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, Central America, South America, and a few tropical places in the United States as well.
The banyan tree begins its life as an epiphyte. This means that the seed will germinate and thrive in the crevice of another tree or plant. Seeds that fall to the forest floor will often be eaten before it can ever grow into a tree. Eventually the banyan tree will overtake the host tree and kill it entirely. This is why the banyan tree has been nicknamed “the strangler fig”.
This incredible type of tree has aerial prop roots, meaning that they grow in shallow and swampy soils, but span a larger surface area. This is how that enormous trunk can be properly supported. The leaves of the banyan tree are enormous, thick, and leather-like in texture. Locals will actually use the leaves of this tree as plates!
2. The Black Ash Tree (Fraxinus nigra)
The black ash tree is another deciduous variety that commonly occurs in swamps or other water-logged soils. They are native all over eastern Canada and north eastern America, in provinces and states like Manitoba, Newfoundland, Virginia, and Illinois.
The black ash will grow up to 20 metres in height, with a trunk of around 24 inches in width. The bark of this tree is a dark grey color, corky in texture, that tends to fissure as it ages. Its leaves are pinnately compounded, and in the winter will sport lovely dark brown, velvety buds. The fruit of the black ash tree is of the samara variety, meaning it is a winged pod. They look rather dazzling as the fall to the earth.
Unfortunately, the black ash tree is on the verge of extinction due to an infestation of the invasive species: the emerald ash borer. This nasty little bug has managed to kill off 7.5 billion ash trees already, and there will likely be no more after the decade is over.
This is particularly detrimental to frog species who live in shared areas as well. The leaves of the black ash tree will fall into ponds where tadpoles live, and that is their main source of food. Other types of leaves are too rich in tannins, which are indigestible to frogs. So if there are no more black ash trees, the frog population is also directly threatened.
The wood of the black ash tree is used by humans in the form of electric guitars and bass manufacturing. Apparently this wood has excellent resonant qualities! In Native American cultures, the black ash is an excellent option for basket weaving, as the wood does not having connecting fibers holding the growth rings together.
3. The White Ash Tree (Fraxinus americana)
White ash trees are very similar to their sibling, the black ash variety. One of the only differences is where they grow, and the colors of their leaves. The white ash prefers to grow in mesophytic hardwood forests (not too hot or wet, not too cold or dry) around sugar maple trees.
White ash trees can be found all over North America from Nova Scotia in Canada, to Minnesota, Florida, Wyoming, and Colorado.
The white ash gets its name from its leaves’ glaucous underside. This is a naturally occurring grey/blue metallic color that can also be found on certain types of beetles and bugs! The white ash leaves will turn a very vibrant red and yellow in the fall, with lovely compound leaves.
The white ash suffers from the same threat as the black ash does, the emerald ash borer. Although the white ash does seem to appear slightly more resilient against this invasive species than its siblings, the white ash is also on the critically endangered list.
Due to the extremely dense and straight grained wood, white ash is one of the most cultivated trees in North America. Its wood is used in many areas, from manufacturing baseball bats, to furniture, to flooring.
4. The Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica)
The neem is both a deciduous and evergreen tree, and it is often referred to as either a nimtree, or an Indian Lilac. It belongs to the family meliaceae, or mahogany. It is considered evergreen, however in severe droughts there is a chance they may shed their leaves.
The neem tree is usually found in tropical and semi tropical regions, and is known for its resistance to draught. It prefers annual rainfall of around 800ml, with temperature hovering around 80 degree Fahrenheit, never falling below 39. Locations that possess all of the conditions are Iran, India, Laos, Cambodia, Bengal, Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam.
The neem tree grows incredibly fast, and will shoot up to an impressive 40 metres in its lifetime. Its branches are spread very wide and high, and on the ends of those you will find pinnate, dark green leaflets. In the spring it will explode with white, bisexual flowers, each branch sprouting a baffling 300 flowers per season!
This tree is utilized for its shade, as it is one of the only shade giving trees that is able to grow in these harsh regions. They’re often found around public spaces like temples and schools. The neem tree was actually labelled as a weed, and is able to spread overwhelmingly quickly. For this reason, it is illegal to transport any neem seeds or plants for risk of it becoming invasive in a foreign region.
5. The Bigtooth Aspen Tree (Populus grandidentata)
Also referred to as the large-tooth aspen, American aspen, or Canadian poplar, this thin and disorienting tree is native to eastern North America. It is a deciduous tree with strange leaves, which is where it gets its scientific name. Populus grandidentata is latin for sharp teeth, basically.
Found in Virginia, Maine, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Manitoba and beyond, the bigtooth aspen can adapt to a large variety of soil types. It is abundant in loamy sand, but is also capable of thriving on alpine, rocky sites (hello, Colorado!). They would prefer to exist in well aerated soils, but they definitely do no tolerate shade.
Seed production begins around 10 years for the bigtooth aspen, and each year the tree will release around a million seeds! Another way this tree reproduces is through suckers. If an aspen dies, suckers grow from the roots and eventually evolve into little clones of their mother tree. Kind of alien, huh?
These trees live short and fast, but provide necessary shade and food for their animal neighbors. Humans utilize bigtooth aspen wood in the form of pallets, log homes, chopsticks, and ladders. This is because their wood is straight grained with very fine texture.
The tree has thick leaves that tremble and clatter in the wind, with thin and smooth olive green bark that eventually turns white. In maturity, the bark will then start fading to grey and become thick and riddled with strange grooves.
6. The Quaking Aspen Tree (Populus tremula)
The quaking aspen is a very different tree than its sibling, the bigtooth aspen. This particular species of deciduous tree is very tolerant to cold winters and short summers, and that is way it can be found in the coolest, most temperate regions of Europe and Asia.
Spanning from Iceland to the British Isles, Scandinavia, Russia, Spain, Turkey, North Korea, and Japan, the quaking aspen prefers to grow at high altitude in mountain ranges. This tree is highly demanding of water and sunlight, and for that reason it grows extremely quickly to beat out the canopy competition.
The quaking aspen can grow to be up to 40 metres tall with a trunk 1 metre in diameter. The bark is a light greenish-grey in color, that is smooth in their youth, and grows more rough with lenticels (porous tissue) as it ages. This tree gets its name because of the way the trees clatter and tremble at the slightest breeze. It’s leaves are small and round with toothed edges (like its sibling, the bigtooth aspen).
*A nickname for the quaking aspen is langues des femmes which translates to “the tongues of women”. Decipher that as you wish.
This aspen reproduces by either wind pollination, or by root sprouts. Funnily enough, the reason why aspens grow so close to one another, is that the suckers sprouting from the roots will grow anywhere from 40 metres from its mother tree, regardless of how much space there is.
The wood of the quaking aspen is rather soft and light, and so its used by humans for lumber and matches, and it very popular in the pulp and paper industry as well. The aspen is also an important habitat for insect and fungus species.
7. The Mahogany Tree (Swietenia mahagoni)
This variety of mahogany tree goes by many names; American mahogany, Cuban mahogany (this will make sense later), small-leaved mahogany, and West-Indian Mahogany. This semi-deciduous, semi-evergreen tree loses a portion of its leaves in the colder seasons, and the new growth starts its life out as a lovely reddish-pink color. Hence the reason for it being semi-deciduous, semi-evergreen.
This variety of mahogany tree is native to south Florida, and the Caribbean islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Bahamas, and the Dominican Republic. As you may have guessed, this tree prefers to live in tropical climates with ample sunlight and ample moisture.
This is considered as a medium sized tree, growing to heights of 25 meters with larger pinnate leaves. As mentioned before, when the leaves first sprout they are a blood red color, and quickly change to a dark green. Mahogany trees produce fruit in wood, winged pods that contain their seeds.
All of those nicknames that swietenia mahagoni has received all comes from the way that it has been cultivated over the years. The first ever recorded us was in 1514 to build the oldest church in the West Indies, and ever since then mahogany wood has been a staple in fine furniture making and royal rooms.
Mahogany is also a very coveted choice of material for the making of high end insturments, such as mandolins, marimbas, and guitars. However, due to irresponsible over harvesting, much of the mahogany available today comes from a different species, and is lower quality.
8. The Basswood Tree (Tilia americana)
The species of this tree comes from the malvaceae family, and the basswood tree is the only representative of its genus in the western hemisphere! Otherwise known as American basswood, or American linden, it is a large deciduous tree that grows faster than any other North American hardwood trees. Not only that, this monster has a 200 year life expectancy.
The basswood tree grows in mesic soils with a rather high pH. A mesic soil is a soil that is neither too wet or dry, and is well aerated. These types of soils occur in Manitoba and Quebec in Canada, and in New England, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and Nebrasksa, just to name a few.
This tree grows to be a baffling 37 metres tall with a trunk diameter of 1.5 metres. Its leaves are quite large, simply shaped with alternating ovate and cordate shaping (oval and heart with wide bases). It’s flowers are small, white, and highly fragrant, which are actually edible!
The basswood tree has wood that is very pale in color, free of knots but also doesn’t split easily. In the past this wood has been used to make baskets, fishing nets, and rope. It is also a popular choice of wood to manufacturing guitars as well.
The foliage and flowers of this tree have also been used for medicinal purposes. Usually dried and then made into tea, basswood flowers help with illnesses, inflammation, headaches, and muscle pain.
9. The American Beech Tree (Fagus grandifolia)
Indicative of from its name, the American beech tree can only be found in certain parts of North America. If you want to get specific about it, it only occurs in the south of Ontario and Nova Scotia in Canada, and in north Texas, north Florida in the United States.
The American beech is a deciduous tree that grows to be anywhere between 20-35 meters in its lifetime. That being said, it’s a super slow growing tree and will only reach about 6 meters in 20 years! However, that process can be sped up if it exists in perfect conditions.
Those conditions are moist, and well drained acidic soils. These are usually found on slopes or rich bottomlands. It grows alongside yellow birch, sugar maple, and eastern hemlock in forests that have reached ecological succession. The American beech is strongly intolerant of too much sun, dry soil and any sort of urban pollution.
This variety of tree is largely ornamental, due to the fact that it is so slow growing. It’s a very hardwood that is difficult to split, but it is quite flexible. This is why it’s a great choice for bentwood furniture – it will bend quite easily went steamed without breaking.
10. The Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera)
Here we have a deciduous mammoth that can grow up to 60 meters in its lifetime! This is the largest tree so far in the list. Part of the magnolia family, tulip trees grow either all over North America, or in China and Vietnam.
They appreciate soil that is mildly acidic, temperate climates, and very moist soil. They are very easily recognized firstly by their height, but also because of their unique and large leaves. The leaves are shaped into four distinct lobes that vary from 8-10 inches wide.
A tree with very deep and reaching roots, they also sprout flowers in the spring around 4 inches large, a striking array of yellow, green, and orange flare. The flowers are the reason for the trees’ name, which strongly resemble tulips.
The wood of the tulip trees is very stable with a fine grain, making it quite easy to work with. It is most commonly used in inexpensive cabinet and furniture framing. Since it’s not a particularly attractive grain of wood, it is reserved for the foundation.
Birches are known as being pioneer trees. This means that when some sort of disaster occurs (most commonly forest fires), birches are the first tree to germinate and repopulate that area. They are survivors, but they don’t live for very long.
There are several varieties of birch tree, but we’re going to focus specifically on the black bitch, gray birch, paper birch, and yellow birch. These trees have many similarities, and many surprising differences. One birch only lives to be about 50, another can live to be almost 400!
11. The Black Birch Tree (Betula lenta)
A black birch is a medium sized deciduous tree that is commonly found in east North America, mostly in southern Maine west and southernmost Ontario region. However, they do also occur in the Appalachian Mountains. They grow to be up 35 meters in height, and the oldest one known to exist is 368!
Birch trees prefer to grow in soil that is rather acidic and not too dry or too moist. They prefer to live in climates that have moderately hot summers, but they can survive easily in colder winters as well.
The wood of the black birch tree is quite hard, strong, coarse grained, and heavy. It is dark brown with yellow sapwood. It is easiest to recognize the black birch by its bark — the paper-y kind that you can strip off and write a note one.
Black birch wood is commonly used for furniture and fuel. Black birch wood is a common substitute for expensive furniture woods such as mahogany and cherry. Moreover, the oil extracted from its twigs is used for flavorings and medicinal purposes.
The black birch can also be tapped for syrup, just like a sugar maple! However, the sap must be gathered 3 times more often, and the syrup is much stronger with more of a molasses flavor.
12. The Gray Birch Tree (Betula populifolia)
Also of the deciduous variety, the gray birch is native to several provinces in Canada, such as Nova Scotia, and Ontario. In the United States they occur in Indiana, Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
Unlike its siblings, the gray birch actually prefers to grow in soil that is low in nutrients and is rather dry. It is most often found on mountainsides or in mixed woodlands. This variety only lives to be about 30 years old, and is the first tree to appear after a forest fire.
They grow to be between 20-30 meters tall, and are topped off with a crown of slender branches. The leaves are dark green, and oval shaped that turn a blazing yellow in the fall and then fall off in the winter. Gray birches have smooth and thin bark, but doesn’t quite peel off in the same clean way that the black or paper birch does.
The wood of the gray birch tree is medium hard, and is a prime choice in the manufacturing of furniture, spools, and furniture. Because of its high oil content, it also makes excellent firewood, even when wet.
13. The Paper Birch Tree (Betula papyrifera)
The paper birch tree is a medium sized, deciduous, and short-lived tree that is commonly found in North America. It earned its name as “paper” birch because the trunk of this tree is thin and white and it peels off as paper would. This tree is shade intolerant and it can grow in many different kinds of soils.
A paper birch tree flourishes the most when it is planted alongside streams, swamps, and lakes. The wood of this tree is strong, light, hard, tough and light brown in color. The wood is used to make wood pulp, woodenware, and spools.
In nature, the paper birch tree is a very important food source for moose during the winter. Although the bark is low in nutrients, there is enough of it to sustain them throughout the harsh and barren seasons.
The bark of this tree is reddish brown or golden when, but it soon turns into chalky white as the tree matures. The trunk is covered with thin shards of papery layers that peel away like shreds of paper. Leaves are similar to the leaves of its siblings, alternately arranged dark green leaves that end in a tip.
14. The Yellow Birch Tree (Betula alleghaniensis)
A yellow birch tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is native to northeastern North America. The growing range extends from Newfoundland to Prince Edward Island, from Minnesota to the Appalachian Mountains. It successfully grows on moist and rich uplands when it has sugar maple and beech trees in its surrounding as they all flourish together.
The wood is coarse-grained, hard, strong, and light brown in color. It is commonly used for lumber, woodenware, flooring, furniture, airplanes, interior design, and in agriculture. It is a source of fuelwood as well for anyone who may come across it.
The bark of this tree is bright yellowish silver when it is young, and as it grow, it begins to peel off. It then unveils a dark brownish red color. The leaves of this tree are quite similar to the leaves of a black birch tree but the flipside of the leaves is a little hairy, just like its siblings.
15. The Butternut Tree (Juglans cinerea)
A butternut tree is a slow growing, deciduous tree that is native to southeast Canada and eastern United States. It will only grow in regions that don’t get too hot, and so they tend to stick to high alpine areas. They require soils that are slightly moist, well drained, with moderate acidity levels.
The wood of the butternut tree is soft but not strong, light, coarse grained, durable, easy to work with and light brown in color. Butternut would is a first choice for wood carvers, and it popular in furniture manufacturing as well. The oils from butternut trees prove to have medicinal qualities, and butternut bark has traditionally been used for natural dyeing.
The bark of the butternut tree is light gray in color and quite smooth when it is young, but as the tree matures the color of the bark changes along with its texture. The butternut tree has simple leaves that are stem less and long with pointed tips. The leaves are downy, and more of a yellow-lime green color.
16. The Black Cherry Tree (Prunus serotina)
A black cherry tree (often referred to as a shrub) is a fast growing, medium sized, deciduous tree that is widespread and commonly found in North and South America. This tree is considered as the most valuable cherry tree found in New York.
It requires growing in moist hillsides or rich soiled bottomlands, but it can be grown in drier locations as well. The wood of this tree is strong, light, and hard, coarse-grained and pale brownish red heartwood.
The wood of the black cherry tree is always in demand because of its fantastic qualities and it is used for tools, fence posts, cabinet making, interior design, and tires. Apart from being a great source of timber, many wildlife creatures feed off this tree.
Black cherry bark is red brown in color at first, that is smooth and and banded, resembling a birch. As the bark starts to mature, it becomes darker and rough. The leaves of the black cherry tree are quite simple with pointed tips, and are glossy and deep green in color.
17. The Pin Cherry Tree (Prunus pensylvanica)
A pin cherry is a small cherry tree that is often considered a shrub because of its small size. It is native to North America and it is most commonly found in the different provinces of Canada. This tree thrives in abandoned lands because it is a tree that is the first to reproduce in a disturbed area.
The reason why this tree is valued is that it has the ability to protect soil in wastelands so when other trees are planted, they can establish and flourish to their fullest potential. The wood of the pin cherry tree is soft, coarse-grained, light, and light brown heartwood. The wood of this tree is barely ever used commercially.
The bark of the pin cherry tree possesses a bright red brown color and it is smooth with breathing pores. As it starts to mature, the bark starts to get rough around the base of the tree. Just like the tree, the leaves of this tree are small and simple, they have a pointed tip and they are broader compared to the black cherry tree leaves.
18. The American Chestnut Tree (Castanea dentata)
The American chestnut tree is a large sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America, hence its name. The American chestnut tree is a subspecies of the chestnut tree. Other popular chestnut trees are found in Europe and Asia (especially in Japan and China). The wood of the American chestnut tree is popularly used by farmers because of how rapidly it grows. The wood of this tree is soft, light, coarse grained, durable when it touches soil, and red brown in color. The American chestnut tree wood is commonly used for posts.
The bark of this tree is red brown and smooth, but as it gets older, the color becomes darker and the bark begins to break a little. The leaves of the American chestnut tree are small, oval, and light brown in color. The leaves of this tree are similar to the leaves of other chestnut trees.
19. The Eastern Cottonwood Tree (Populus deltoides)
An eastern cottonwood tree is a large, fast growing, short lived, deciduous tree that is commonly found in the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico. It is a tree species that grows best in rich and moist soil locations. The eastern cottonwood tree generally flourishes alongside lakes and streams. This tree can be planted anywhere in the country except for places with high elevations.
Eastern cottonwood trees are considered as ornamental trees because of their appeal. Although, this tree successfully adds aesthetic value to any location, its downy hairs tend to clog sewers and drains. The wood of this tree is weak, light, soft, and dark brown in color. White sapwood warps around the wood when there is not enough water content in the roots. The wood is commonly used for boxes and pulp. If this tree is ever cut down, it tends to grow back really fast.
The bark of this tree is light green yellow in color and smooth. However, as it matures, it turns into an ashy gray color and rough. The leaves of the eastern cottonwood tree are simple, triangular shaped and fairly long. They feature incurved teeth along the margin. In the summer, the eastern cottonwood sheds incredible amounts of downy cotton that contains its seeds.
20. The Cucumber Tree (Magnolia acuminata)
A cucumber tree is a deciduous tree and one of the largest magnolia tree species on the globe. It is found in eastern United States and southern Ontario. The reason why it is called a cucumber tree is because it grows fruit that looks like an oddly shaped cucumber. It is commonly planted in moist slopes, rich soiled woods, or along streams.
The bark of the cucumber tree is brown gray in color and it has long narrow furrows that disperse as they reach the top. The leaves of this tree are simple, and pointed at the tip. The leaves of the cucumber tree have an entire margin. Moreover, the twigs of this tree have a beautiful scent.
The wood of this tree is brittle, light, soft, coarse-grained, and light brown yellow in color. They are most commonly planted as ornamental trees, however not in the same way that magnolias are. Though the tree shape is relatively the same, the cucumber tree grows its beautiful flowers (and subsequent fruit) high up in the canopy, where it is most difficult for us to see from the ground.
Elm trees are tough. They are varying, resilient, and when they were once prevalent and a prospering species, the grew to large sizes and ordained many countrysides and city streets.
Unfortunately, an invasive pathogen invaded the elm species all of North America, and it has taken a huge toll on the elm species — this diseases is called Dutch Elm Disease. Some species of elm are more susceptible than others, and we are lucky to still have existing communities.
21. The American Elm Tree (Ulmus americana)
An American elm tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America, specifically in Nova Scotia, Alberta, Montana, Florida and Texas. The American elm tree is considered as one of the most graceful, well known, and beautiful tree in New York. This tree is the common tree for most bottomlands and it largely grows in many states of the United States.
The wood of this tree is tough, strong, hard, heavy, coarse grained, hard to work with and light brown in color. The wood is usually used for wheel hubs and crates, veneer, hoops and barrel staves. The symmetrical crown of the American elm tree gives it its ornamental quality.
Unfortunately, this tree became the victim of the Dutch Elm disease, which is why it was no longer seen on streets and at parks. Luckily, there have been serious measures that took place to revive this species.
The bark of this tree is dark gray in color and has odd furrows all over it. As it gets older, the outer bark begins to flake off revealing a white and brown surface. The leaves of the American elm tree are simple and they become dark green as they mature.
22. The English Elm Tree (Ulmus minor ‘Atinia’)
An English elm tree (also known as a British elm tree) is a medium sized, fast growing, deciduous tree largely found in Europe. The fields of central southern Europe were full of English elm trees before the Dutch Elm disease took over. The upper branches of this elm tree make the tree look like a fan shaped crown.
English elm wood was once highly valued for the manufacuring of water pipes and hollowed trucks — thanks to its resistance to rot in saturated conditions. This wood has also been used as timber, for pier construction, and jetties as well.
The bark of this tree is usually scaly and nothing compared to the bark of the ancient Field elm. It is quite rough and dusty brown in color. The leaves of the English elm tree start off as light green but as they mature, they become dark green. They sprout beautiful apetalous, purple flowers in the early spring, before the deciduous leaves come out.
23. The Slippery Elm Tree (Ulmus rubra)
A slippery elm tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is native to northern America and largely found in North Dakota, Maine, Quebec, Florida, and Texas. It is the kind of tree that flourishes in low fertile slopes and on stream banks.
Slippery elm tree is strong, hard, heavy, fairy durable when it touches soil, and coarse grained. The wood of this tree is not commonly used commercially, but when it is used, it is used to make barrel staves, fence posts, hoops, and ties.
Slippery elm bark has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, firstly by First Nations communities, and then the knowledge of its remedying became more widespread, and is still used today as a soothing salve.
The bark of this tree is brown gray in color and tends to differ from the bark of an American elm tree. The inner bark of this tree has a white slimy, glue like substance on it which is why it is called “slippery” elm. The leaves of this tree are –somewhat- big, they have teeth on the margins, and tend to change color as they get older (go from light green to dark green).
24. The Hawthorn Tree (Crataegus)
The hawthorn tree is a genus of tree that contains several hundred species. This tree species is commonly found in North America, Asia, and Europe. Since there are many subcategories in this tree species, the distinguishing factor is commonly the fruits and flowers that grow on the tree.
Many of the hawthorn species are very similar to one another, and can be rather difficult to distinguish. It would take a keen eye to be able to tell them apart. They are a very popular ornamental tree, and adorn many English countrysides.
The hawthorn tree also carries a decent amount of folkloric tales, and some spiritual significance. It is a symbol of fertility to some cultures, and a way to ward off evil spirits to others. They produce beautiful flowers with an intense smell, and small, delicious, and deep colored fruits that are enjoyed by humans and animals alike.
25. The Black Locust Tree (Robinia Pseudoacacia)
The black locust tree is sometimes referred to as a “false acacia” (hence the inclusion of “pseudo” in its scientific name) because they are very difficult to distinguish from one another. This deciduous tree is part of the robiniaea family, and the subfamily of faboideae, which both peas and beans are also part of!
The black locust in native to North America, but is also considered as an invasive species because its just too good at populating areas where there is no shade competition. They are capable of turning grasslands into a forest ecosystem.
They have been cultivated to many other continents, and countries, including Asia, Europe, Africa, south America, Pakistan India, Canada, and New Zealand. They appreciate all kinds of soils, but grow the best in areas that aren’t too moist and get a ton of sunlight.
Black locust wood in the toughest hardwood that can be found in North America, and is considered to be very valuable for this reason. They’re an excellent tree to plant to help with soil eroison, and the wood is used for furniture, flooring, fence posts, and small boats.
They have very straight trunks with a narrow crown, beautifully colored leaves, and stunning flowers that bloom in the shape of a butterfly that are a valuable resource to nectar loving insects.
26. The Honey Locust Tree (Gleditsia triacanthos)
The honey locust tree is a tree native to North America, and is so good at adapting to new environments that it is considered as being an aggressively invasive species. They grow very quickly, live for about 120 years, and can really wreak havoc within that time.
These deciduous trees develop very thorny spikes that prove to be monumentally annoying for livestock and other animals. They grow lovely smelling flowers and edible fruit, and have bark that is gray and furrowed.
The wood is durable and flexible and is very easy to work with, making it a valuable wood to use in the lumber industry. Bark and twigs are also used for medicinal purposes by certain First Nations cultures.
There are 18 species of hickory tree, though they vary in size and small characteristics, they are all rather large, fast growing, hardwood trees. Hickory trees are all deciduous, and their wood is valued for a number of different reasons.
Some have delicious and edible nuts, others are valued for their quality of wood for meat smoking, but they are all tall with impressive canopies.
27. The Bitternut Hickory Tree (Carya cordiformis)
A bitternut hickory is a large sized, deciduous tree that largely grows around North America. This tree prefers growing on wet lands such as pastures, fields, hillsides, ridge tops and along streams. The bitternut hickory tree does well in rich, moist soils.
The wood is strong, touch, heavy, hard, and dark brown in color. The wood of the bitternut hickory tree is often used for lumber, pulpwood, furniture pannelling, and not to mention that it is one of the most popular choices of wood for meat smokers — this is because of its attractive smoke smell.
The bark of this tree is light gray in color and has shallow furrows on it. The leaves range in size but they all have sharp points at the tip, and are a delicate yellow-green color. They drop a huge amount of debris in late autumn, making them kind of a nuisance for landscapers.
Unlike their relatives, the pecan hickory, their nuts are too bitter to be edible, but the wood is sometimes mixed in with the wood of true hickories when being sold. They are the shortest lived of all the hickory trees, but 200 years isn’t something to laugh at!
28. The Pignut Hickory Tree (Carya glabra)
A pignut hickory tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in Canada and Eastern United States. It is an upland species that grows well on hillsides and dry ridges, but grows most prosperously in more humid climates. It can be found in almost every state in America.
Pignut hickory wood isn’t used commercially all that often, because internal discoloration of the wood occurs due to it being favored by various beetles and birds. Many forest dwelling species rely on pignut foliage and seeds as the main part of their diet.
Pignut hickory bark is coarsely textured with short branches and an irregular crown. Its leaves are compound (composed of leaflets) that drop in the fall, but before that they turn a stunning golden yellow.
29. The Shagbark Hickory Tree (Carya ovata)
A shagbark hickory tree is a large, long lived, deciduous tree found in southeast Canada and north east United States. It is one of the oldest living hickory trees, and tends to grow very tall — 350 years old and up to 40 meters tall.
The wood of this tree is tough, elastic, heavy, and coarse-grained. Because the tree is slow growing, it isn’t very popular in the lumber industry, but it is sometimes used to manufacture certain types of tool handles. Its most important uses come from forest animals, who heavily rely on its foliage and sweet nuts as a part of their diet.
The bark of this tree is light gray, and smooth. As the tree begins to age, the bark of the tree starts to peel off. The peeling process is unique as it peels off in long strips that are attached in the middle but loose on the ends. This is what gave it its name as “shagbark” hickory.
30. The American Hophornbeam Tree (Ostrya virginiana)
An American hophornbeam tree is a small sized, deciduous tree that is found in eastern North America, Central America, and Mexico. This tree is very similar to the American hornbeam and it is quite popularly found in the stony, dry soils on ridges and slopes.
This tree grows very slowly and it never grows larger than 10 inches in diameter. The wood of this tree is very strong, heavy and hard, which is why it is often called ironwood. The wood is used for levels, tools, handles, and it makes the best fuel wood.
The bark of this tree is very thin and flakey. It is light gray brown in color. The leaves of this tree are simple and they are serrated all around its edge.
31.The American Hornbeam Tree (Carpinus caroliniana)
An American hornbeam is a small-sized, bushy, deciduous tree that is native to North America. It is most commonly found in Minnesota, Florida, Maine, Texas, and Quebec. In addition, this tree is commonly planted on the edge of swamps and along watercourses. It usually stays at 6 inches in diameter as it is a small tree.
The wood of this tree is hard, very heavy, strong, and coarse-grained with a very light cream color. The wood of the American hornbeam tree is commonly used for the making of many kinds of tool handles.
The bark of this tree possesses a dark gray blue color, it is thin and smooth. This tree is known for its attractive bark, making it a nice addition to a home garden even after it has dropped its leaves. The leaves of the American hornbeam are simple and they have subtle serrate along the entire margin.
32. The Tamarack Tree (or American Larch) (Larix laricina)
The tamarack is a small to medium sized, boreal deciduous and coniferous tree that is most commonly found in Canada. This Canadian native tree is also found in different areas around the United States such as Alaska, Minnesota, and West Virginia. It can be both coniferous and decidous because it possess needles and cones, but they still drop seasonally.
Often, the American larch is considered as the “forest tree of swamps.” It can easily be found in the mountainous locations including steep slopes, but it can also be found in cold swamps around North America. It is able to withstand incredibly cold temperatures, up to -85 F!
The wood of this tree is hard, strong, heavy, and light brown in color. Many of the uses of the tamarack tree come from First Nations customs. The bark is used medicinally, and the wood is used to create snowshoes.
The bark of this tree is smooth and light gray, but as it gets older, the texture of the bark gets rough and the color turns a brown red. The leaves of the tamarck tree change their appearance during the different seasons, but for majority of the time, they are pale green.
33. The European Larch Tree (Larix decidua)
A European larch tree is a medium to large sized, mountainous, deciduous and coniferous tree that is found in Europe. This larch tree species can live up to a 1000 years! It is only found in cold, high elevated areas such as the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps. However, recently, this tree is being spotted in gardens and parks as an ornamental piece. The wood of the European larch tree is heavy, durable, strong, but flexible. It is commonly used for yacht making and fence posts.
The bark of this tree is a dusty brown color and smooth, but as it gets older, the smooth bark peels off and reveals a reddish brown surface. The leaves of this tree are similar to the leaves of the American larch tree.
Maple trees are considered as one of the most important forest tree group in North America. The most popular type of maple tree would be the sugar maple tree, as this is the one that produces the sap that creates maple syrup, while also having valuable wood, beautiful aesthetic qualities, food for the wildlife, and watershed protection. There are many trees in this species that are popular all around the globe. Different areas of the world have different maple trees.
The most distinguishable factor of maple trees would be the arrangement of its leaves, twigs, and buds — and probably the most recognizable being a maple leaf. The fruit grown on this tree is quite distinctive as well. The bark of each maple tree depends on what type of maple tree it is.
34. The Red Maple Tree (Acer rubrum)
A red maple tree is a medium to large sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America. This tree is the most widespread and most common tree found in east and central North America.
The reason why it is called red maple is that during the fall time, the leaves of this tree turn a beautiful bright red color, and its twigs, buds, and flowers are all red as well.
The red maple tree can be found in swamps, in woodlots, and on moist slopes. The wood of this tree is –somewhat- strong, coarse-grained, and inexpensive. The red maple tree wood is commonly used for cheap furniture, fuel wood, railroad ties, crates, and baskets.
The bark of this tree is light grey when it is young and quite smooth. However, as it gets older, it gets darker and rough. The leaves are simple with 5 lobes, with the top 3 being larger than the bottom 2. They are most similar to the leaf of the sugar maple, whereas as other maples have leaves that are more narrow with sharper points.
35. The Silver Maple Tree (Acer saccharinum)
A silver maple tree is a medium sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in the United States and Canada. Even though this tree is commonly spread all over North America, it is not as common as the red maple tree. The silver maple tree flourishes when it is planted in similar locations as the red maple tree and its wood is very similar to the red maple tree as well.
Lumbermen have given its wood the terminology “soft maple”, because of its soft quality. Since it is a fast growing tree, it is commonly planted for shade purposes. However, it has weak wood which is why it should not be planted near cars, homes, and other buildings.
The bark of this tree is reddish gray and smooth. As it matures, it starts to become a reddish brown color and starts getting flakey. The leaves are quite similar to the red maple tree leaves, but they possess a green and silvery white color, which is why it is called the silver maple.
36. The Sugar Maple Tree (Acer saccharum)
A sugar maple tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is native to Canada, but is prevalent all over North America. Whereas most maples are renowned for their beautiful foliage, the sugar maple is most known for its sap. This sugary sap is what creates maple syrup which is distributed all over the planet.
The wood is strong, coarse-grained, hard, and tough, with a fine surface. It is most commonly used for interior design, shoe lasts, furniture, veneer, flooring, fuel wood (of the highest quality) and rollers. Sugar maple has the quality of wood in the maple family.
The bark of a young sugar maple tree is dark gray, firm, and smooth, but as it gets older it starts becoming furrowed. The leaves are similar to the other maple tree leaves but, the sugar maple tree leaves are dark green in color. In the fall, the leaves can possess a variety of colors at the same time, from purple, to yellow, to green, to brown, to orange, to red.
There are almost 300 known oak tree species in the world and 55 of them are native to North America of which most are in the eastern part of the United States. Oak trees are the most common trees in the forests of New York. Oak trees are known to grow in different conditions, and each different species has its own variation, form, and distinguishing factors. While some oak trees flourish in mountainous areas and forests, others prefer growing in sheltered valleys.
In order to gain a better understanding of oak tree types, it is better to divide them in two groups: the white oaks and the black oaks.
The leaves of the white oaks are rounded and the acorns that grow on it are sweet. The acorns of this category take a year to mature which is why they are referred to as annual oaks.
The leaves of the black oaks have bristles on their tips instead of being round and the acorns are bitter as well. The acorns of this category mature two times in one year which is why they are referred to as biennial oaks. The immature acorns are what help distinguishing black oaks from white oaks.
37. The Black Oak Tree (Quercus velutina)
A black oak tree is a small sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in central and eastern North America. This tree is a dominant tree commonly found in different parts of North America, but it is not as valuable as the red oak tree (mentioned below). This tree is usually grown on gravelly soils and dry grounds. The wood of the black oak tree is strong, hard, and heavy, but not as valuable as the red oak tree. The wood is used for fuel wood, ties, and construction.
The bark of the black oak tree is dark brown, and smooth. As it gets older, it started becoming gray black and extremely rough. Sometimes, the bark starts to peel off and it reveals a yellow orange inner bark that is often used to yield yellow dye. The leaves of this tree are simple and they have bristles on their tips.
There are two other types of black oak trees as well. One of them is the Casuarina pauper, Australian tree species and Quercus kelloggii, the Californian tree species, from western U.S.
38. The Chestnut Oak Tree (Quercus Montana)
A chestnut oak tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in eastern United States. The reason why it is called a chestnut oak tree is because the leaves are shaped like chestnuts. This oak tree species is found on rocky ridges, hillsides, and dry lands. The wood of the chestnut oak tree is like the wood of a white oak tree (mentioned below) but it is not as precious as it. The wood of this tree is used for posts, rough construction, and ties. The lumber obtained from it is quite hard for any interior finishes.
The bark of this tree is yellow brown and smooth when it is young. When it gets older, it starts becoming dark brown and black with rough ridges and deep furrows. The leaves of this tree are commonly yellow green and simple. They are shaped just like chestnuts but they do not have bristled tips.
39. The Northern Red Oak Tree (Quercus rubra)
A northern red oak tree is a medium to large sized, fast growing, deciduous tree commonly found in North America. This tree has shown signs of adaptability in different soils and conditions. The wood of the northern red oak tree is light, strong, hard, heavy, and light brown red in color. It is commonly used for interior finishes, piling, ships, general construction, and furniture. However, is not as durable as the wood of a white oak tree.
The bark of this tree is smooth and gray green when it is young. As it gets older, the bark starts breaking in an irregular way and reveals shallow furrows. The inner bark color is red. The leaves of the northern red oak are simple and have bristle tips.
40. The Scarlet Oak Tree (Quercus coccinea)
A scarlet oak tree is a medium to large sized, deciduous tree native to eastern and central United States. The scarlet oak tree is a tree that has vibrant foliage during the fall time and it is commonly planted in soils of poor quality. The wood of this tree is coarse, heavy, and strong. It is commonly used for inferior constructions, but it is not used for ties, fuel, and props. The scarlet oak tree adds a beautiful aesthetic because of its unique colored leaves; it is often used as an ornamental piece by many homeowners.
The bark of this tree is smooth and light brown. As it gets older, it starts getting edges and furrows in it. The color of the bark turns black. The inner bark has a beautiful red color. The leaves of the scarlet oak tree are simple and toothed.
41. The White Oak Tree (Quercus alba)
A white oak tree is a medium to large sized, long lived, deciduous and evergreen tree that is commonly found in central and eastern North America. The reason why it is called a white oak tree is because it is not common to find any tree species that has a white bark, light gray is common, but having a white trunk is exotic. A white oak tree produces high quality lumber. The white oak tree does well in moist soils as well as dry areas. The wood of this tree is strong, heavy, durable, and hard. It is most commonly used for implements, flooring, ties, furniture and general construction where the sturdiness of the wood is required. Moreover, the acorns that grow on the white oak tree are quite important for wildlife.
The bark of the white oak tree is white and sometimes ashy gray in color. It has furrows and scales, but as it gets older, the furrows get deeper. The leaves of this tree have round lobes and they are quite simple.
42. The Eastern White Pine Tree (Pinus strobes)
An eastern white pine tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is most commonly found in North America and in the United Kingdom. This tree can grow properly on different locations including hillsides and swamps. The wood of the eastern white pine tree is even textured, soft, light brown, and can be easily worked with. The lumber it provides is used for a variety of things such as doors, buckets, boxes, interior trims, and sashes. There is no other tree that has such versatile wood.
The bark of this tree is green, smooth and quite thin. However, as it gets older, it becomes brown and grey with deep furrows. The leaves of this tree are like needles but they are quite flexible. One tree can stay on a twig for almost 2 years.
43. The Sassafras Tree (Sassafras albidum)
A sassafras tree is a small size to medium sized, shade intolerant, deciduous tree that is commonly found in eastern North America and eastern Asia. This tree is popularly known for its roots and barks as they are commonly used to make sassafras tea and they have been being used for the longest time. This tree species is commonly found in sandy soils, between mountains or on hillsides. The wood of this tree is aromatic, brittle, weak, soft, and extremely durable when it comes in contact with soil. The wood of the sassafras tree is commonly used to make fence posts.
The bark of this tree is brown red in color and it has deep furrows on it when it is young. As it gets older, the bark starts cracking and it reveals a beautiful vibrant cinnamon red color. Every sassafras tree has its own type of leaves. While some have 3 lobes, there are a few that may have 5; however, this is quite rare.
44. The Shadbush Tree (Amelanchier Canadensis)
A shadbush is a small sized, deciduous tree or shrub that is commonly found in the Northern Hemisphere. There are a few species of this tree that is native to Canada and the United States while some species are only found in Asia and Europe. Although, this tree has an attractive appeal to it, it does not have any value for timber. The shadbush blossoms beautiful flowers during the spring time which are small and white. A shadbush tree is commonly found along river banks, streams, along fences, and on hills. Sometimes they are also found on highlands. The wood of this tree is harder than a white oak’s wood; it is strong, heavy, coarse-grained, and dark brown with red highlights. The wood is very rarely used for tool handles.
The bark of this tree is brown gray in color and quite smooth, but as it gets older, dark streaks begin appearing. The leaves of this tree are simple with sharp pointed tips. The leaves also have subtle serrate on the margin.
45. The Black Walnut Tree (Juglans nigra)
A black walnut tree is a medium to large sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America, Africa, and some places in Europe. This tree is extremely popular because it has high quality wood and it has edible, big nuts that grow on it. Moreover, this tree produces precious timber as well. The best situations for a black walnut tree to grow would be well drained, rich soiled bottomlands. The wood of this tree is strong, hard, heavy, durable, east to work with, can be polished with finesse, and it possesses a rich brown color. The wood of the black walnut tree is most commonly used for interior works, cabinet making, gunstocks, and high end furniture. It is important to protect black walnut trees and they must be planted in locations where they can flourish.
The bark of the black walnut tree is dark, thick, furrowed and brown gray in color. As it gets older, it begins to shred off and it reveals a beautiful dark chocolate brown color inner bark. The leaves of this tree are usually compound with sharp pointed and serrate around the edges. Each l
46. The Black Willow Tree (Salix nigra)
A black willow tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America and Europe. Out of all the willow tree species, the black willow tree is the biggest and most widely spread species. A black willow tree requires wet or moist soil along lakes and streams to grow to its fullest potential, but it can also be grown on sandy, fresh and gravely soils where it can soak up a good amount of sunlight. The black willow tree does not have much importance in terms of its timber production but it can be used for other things. The wood of this tree is soft, weak, and crooked. It is most commonly used for pulp, boxes, excelsior, and artificial limbs as it is quite light.
The bark of a black willow tree is rough, thick and it has scales all over it. When the tree is young, the color of the bark is light brown, but as it gets older, the bark becomes a darker shade of brown. The leaves of this tree are simple, linear shaped they serrate around the margin; the leaves are green on top and light green on the bottom.
47. The Dogwood Tree (Cornus florida)
A dogwood tree is a small sized, ornamental, deciduous tree that is commonly found in eastern North America. A dogwood tree does well when it is getting stocked up with lots of water and it is socking up a good amount of sunshine. A dogwood tree (also known as a flowering dogwood) is commonly known for the light yellow and white flowers that begin to blossom on it during the spring time. Since these flowers have a beautiful appearance, these trees are commonly used for ornamental purposes. The wood of this tree is gray brown in color, coarse grained, dense, and hard. The wood of the dogwood tree has been used for mallets, tool handles, butchers block, golf club heads, wooden rake teeth, and jewelry boxes.
The bark of this tree has an interesting appearance. It is quite scaly and possesses an ash-brown color. The leaves of this tree simple and oval shaped. One distinguishing factor about this tree is that during the fall time, the leaves turn into a beautiful brown red color.
Types of Coniferous Trees
48. The Eucalyptus Tree (Eucalyptus)
Eucalyptus is a genus that contains more than 700 species of shrubs, flowering plants, and trees. Even though they have different genus names; eucalyptus is often referred to as eucalypt in European nations. The plants that belong to this genus have smooth, hard, stringy or fibrous bark, leaves that have oil glands and they have petals and sepals. The fruit that grows on this species is referred to as a gumnut because it is shaped like a woody capsule.
Eucalyptus trees are native to Australia and because wildfires are common in the Australian region, these trees can survive the fire. Moreover, if the tree gets damaged because of these fires, it can re-sprout. There are a few species of eucalyptus plants that can be found outside of Australia. The tree species that are grown in other countries are known to be fast growing and they have valuable timber which is used for honey, essential oils, and pulpwood.
49. The Balsam Fir Tree (Abies balsamea)
A balsam fir is an evergreen, medium size forest tree that is native to northeastern United States and eastern and central Canada. The balsam fir tree is commonly found in cold and deep swamps around the states. The wood of this tree is soft, coarse grained, light, not durable, and light brown in color. The balsam fir tree wood is not used for lumber. It became a popular tree type to have because many people use it as a Christmas tree.
The bark of this tree is gray and brown in color. It is covered in small patches of balsam blisters that have an oily resin them. The leaves are twister and resemble needles. They are dark brown in color and they contain a strong scent which is released when the leaf is crushed.
50. The Eastern Hemlock Tree (Tsuga Canadensis)
An eastern hemlock tree is a large, long lived, shade loving, coniferous tree that is native to North America. This tree is considered as a valuable forest tree and is commonly found everywhere in North America. It is commonly grown in shaded areas, steep mountain slopes, or at the border of a deep swamp. The wood of this tree is not strong, brittle, light, coarse grained, not durable, and light brown in color. The wood is most commonly used as construction lumber and it always stays in demand for pulp.
The bark of this tree is gray red in color and it contains a high content of tannin, the leaves of this tree are borne singly and they have a beautiful dark green color.
51. The Pitch Pine Tree (Pinus rigida)
A pitch pine tree is small to medium sized, coniferous tree that is commonly found in North America and Europe. Believe it or not, this tree is usually found in situations that are not suitable for other types of trees. For example, a pitch pine tree can grow well in low nutrient, acidic, and sandy soils. This tree grows well on slopes as well. The wood of this tree is coarse grained, hard, and reddish brown in color. Although, the tree rarely ever reaches a big size, when it does, the wood is used for lumber. It is used for ties, mine props, rough framing lumber, and crates.
The bark of this tree is reddish brown in color and it is quite rough even at a young age. However, as it gets older, it becomes a deeper red brown color and gets deep furrows all over. Because the bark of the pitch pine three is very thick, it is a fire resistant tree. Moreover, there are clusters of needles that are located on the trunk. The leaves of the pitch pine tree are like needles, very stiff, and they are green yellow in color.
52. The Red Pine Tree (Pinus resinosa)
A red pine tree is a medium to large sized, rapid growing, coniferous evergreen tree that is commonly found in the United States, United Kingdom and some parts of Europe. This tree is extremely valuable for its timber. It is planted in sandy soils and sometimes even in dry soils. The wood of this tree is light, coarse-grained, somewhat smooth in texture, light red in color, and often bought as white pine lumber. Since this tree species grows quite fast, it is prone to diseases and insects, which is why it is commonly planted in lands that are away from human population. This is a tree species that cannot grow or flourish in soils that are poorly drained.
The bark of the red pine tree is brown red in color and it has thin ridges all over it. Similar to the pitch pine tree, this tree has needle like leaves as well but they possess a rich, deep green color. Moreover, the leaves can stay on the twig for 3 to 4 years.
53. The Scots Pine Tree (Pinus sylvestris)
A scots pine (also known as a scotch pine) tree is a medium to large sized, coniferous evergreen tree commonly found in Europe and Asia. This tree is commonly planted in sandy and poorer quality soils, peat bogs, and rocky outcrops or near the forest limit. Similar to the other pine trees, the scots pine has wood that is coarse-grained, thick, and brown in color. The wood is often used for ties, pulpwood, and framining lumber. On the other hand, the scots pine tree –itself- is used as a Christmas tree.
The bark of this tree is scaly, thick, and brown gray in color. However, the upper part of the trunk is flaky, thin, and orange in color. The leaves are like needles, possessing a blue green color. It is important to know that the leaves of almost all the pine tree species are similar, as they all have needle like leaves.
54. The Eastern Red Cedar Tree (Juniperus virginiana)
An eastern red cedar tree is a small sized, slow growing, coniferous evergreen tree that is found in North and Central America. Sometimes, this tree does not even grow bigger than a bush. It is commonly planted in dry and poorer quality soils. But, this tree grows properly when it is planted in pastures or open woods where it can penetrate maximum amounts of sunlight. The wood of this tree is fragrant, soft, brittle, light, very durable when it gets contacted with soil and it is easy to work with. The eastern red cedar tree’s wood is red in color but it has white sapwood highlights on it. The wood is often used for cedar chests, pencils, interior decorating, and cabinet works.
The bark of this tree is light brown red in color and the leaves of this tree vary from being red brown to dark green. They overlap each other and they have quite a unique look. Lastly, the leaves of this tree are pointed sharply at the tips.
55. The Red Spruce Tree (Picea rubens)
A red spruce tree is a small to medium sized, shade tolerant, slow growing, perennial, coniferous tree that is commonly found in eastern North America and some parts of Europe. It is considered being one of the most valuable and common forest trees in the United States. The wood of the red spruce tree is soft, light, and coarse-grained. It is the kind of wood that is in demand for chemical wood pulp. It has a certain sound managing quality that makes it great for musical instruments. The wood is also used for framing.
The bark of this tree is very thin and it peels off quite easily. The leaves are needle like and they resemble the leaves of pine trees also. They are yellow green in color and they can stay on the twig for 5 to 6 years easily.
56. The White Spruce Tree (Picea glauca)
A white spruce tree is a large sized, coniferous evergreen tree that is commonly found in the boreal forests of North America. These large, tall trees can be found on mountain slopes as well on flat grounds. Just like the red spruce tree wood, this tree has wood that is great to make chemical wood pulp as well. The attractive foliage of this tree is what makes it the perfect ornamental tree, which is why it is used as a Christmas tree.
The bark of the white spruce tree is light brown red in color and it separates in slim scales all over. The leaves of this tree are needle like, shiny, green and they have a strong smell.
57. The Sycamore Tree (Platanus occidentalis)
Sycamore trees are large, deciduous trees that are commonly found in the Northern Hemisphere. Sycamore trees are often found where the soil is fertile and moist. This means, they are mostly planted at river bottoms, along streams, and in the damp low area of woods. Sometimes, these trees are planted in drier locations as well. The wood of the sycamore tree is tough, hard, not strong, heavy, coarse grained, hard to work with and brown red in color. The wood of this tree is used for tobacco boxes, crates, novelties, and butchers blocks and sometimes even for woodworks and furniture.
The bark of the sycamore tree is dark brown at the bottom half of the trunk and has deep furrows. As the bark reaches the top of the tree, it starts peeling off and it reveals a beautiful, bright green yellow inner bark. The leaves of the sycamore tree are simple and broad. They are quite smo