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How to Design and Make Furniture (Step-by-Step Like the Pros)

Furniture maker explains how to design your own furniture in a detailed, step-by-step article with blueprints and more. Design furniture like the pros.

2 Dimensional Blueprint of Furniture Being Designed

Do furniture forms influence our emotions?

According to existing literature, design provides rich interactions. Emotions such as astonishment, surprise, satisfaction, doubt, etc in design furniture follow the dichotomy rectilinear vs curvilinear forms. Studies show that rounded furniture elicits more positive feelings than squared shapes.

Strong connection between furniture design and emotional intelligence therefore has, or at least should have, a key role in the product design process, the art of making furniture from scratch.

Making furniture starts from ideas that, mixed with technology and creativity, turn into a new product ready to be sold.

Furniture we buy is the last step of a long process that starts from an input by business owners, designers, architects or contractors pass by hand-drawn sketches, virtual models, prototypes and finishes with manufacturing.

Product design is a problem solving exercise, where final product fills a gap.

Steps for designing furniture

Source: Online Design Teacher

Let’s see all steps in product design.

Specifications, Research and Concept

No solutions are found without understanding problems. In case of furniture design, “problems” may be either social challenges, such as developing a flexible piece of furniture that fits several private or business areas and technical challenges, such as developing something scalable and better than what is on the market.

Balancing specifications and creativity is a key point in product design. Target audience, appropriate use, cost efficiency and feasibility are always kept in mind before starting with research and concept design.

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Let’s consider an actual example: we need to design and make a small armchair for hotels. Armchairs are going to be placed in four-star hotel rooms next to the breakfast table. Armchairs must be easily movable and have a smooth shape to either raise positive reactions and welcome the guest when entering hotel room. We want a contemporary armchair in polyurethane foam with ideally a non-removable cover in faux leather. Armchair must be fireproof.

Once design brief is shared, designer researches markets and demands, either to find similar products or to be sure there is nothing similar available. He also thinks about how to improve look or ergonomics of existing furniture and how new furniture can be successful.

Back to our example, a small armchair for hotel use, research may start with discovering closest alternatives and comparing backrest height, width of the seat and upholstery to achieve a new product that has all elements enhanced. Being an armchair for breakfast or reading, dimensions and forms are something in between a writing desks chair and a lounge armchair. More, concept takes into account constraint of the base, manufacturing complexity, product lifecycle.

Goal of research is having drawings with dimensions and selection of materials/finishes that resemble the most the final outcome. Hand draw sketches are tweaked once turned into models.

Creating Furniture Models

Two-dimensional model adds concreteness. Rough dimensions and shapes are transferred in a virtualized environment, sizes are adjusted to give more and more reality to the initial concept. 2D model aims at returning a visual and aesthetic impact of the product. The requested armchair is taking shapes.

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Results of our example is armchair Neuma, developed by

2 Dimensional Blueprint of Furniture Being Designed

Neuma by – 2D Model

Following computerized 3D model often highlights problems and flaws in terms of geometry, material proofing, volume and weigh, points of fastening upholstery. 3D modelling is the closest virtual representation of final product and it is meant for further product modifications.

3D blueprint of chairs being designed

Neuma by – 3D model (front view)

3D blueprint design rear view of chair

Neuma by – 3D model – rear and side view

3D blueprint of front and side of chair furniture designNeuma by – 3D model (view from above)

First Mould and Furniture Prototype

Let’s keep on using our example, an armchair. Moulding is the step that follows modelling.

Mould is not the prototype still, rather a sintered and rigid form that reflects volumes and dimensions. Moulding is the step of product design process where you may have to go back to 2D model and make corrections or proceed with prototype. It is time to be critical and check once again furniture functionality, sizes, comfort of the seating, stability, balance and space for feet.

Mould of chair before making the chair for manufacturingNeuma mould: time to see if needed amount of space matches specifications.

Testing has not ended, yet: as the armchair is covered, also the adaptability of coating to the structure needs to be tested so that no issues happen when upholstering. Once everything is verified and settled, prototype is ready to be manufactured for further controls.

See the steps of prototyping Neuma:

1- Double-sided mould. Foam is poured:

Picture of chair being created by factory worker
2-double-sided mould is opened.

Metal frame of chair that will be created and manufactured

3-Exceeding parts are trimmed and contoured, polyurethane is blown.

Fine-tuning chair mould
Prototype is ready. As specifications stated that the armchair had to be upholstered with a non-removable faux-leather cover, now it is time to test covers. Upholstery fabric is sewed, either by hand or using a sewing machine.

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As well as research, concept and modelling, also prototyping involves extensive testing to see, at last, vision becomes reality. Prototype needs to be further tweaked before sending the final design to manufacture.

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Manufacturing of the chair

Initial concept has become a sketch, evolved into a two-dimensional image, a 3D model and turned into a prototype ready for industrialization. A new piece of furniture is ready to enter the market: it can be manufactured by hand or by machines, in small quantity or as mass-production.

Concluding the history of Neuma: such armchair has been tested and finally it has become a mass-product manufactured by a local Italian furniture company. Interested in buying this small armchair for contract use? Check online on SedieDesign.

Rear-view of completed modern arm chair

Side view of finished modern arm chair
Front view of completed modern arm chair
This article was written by Simone Battaglia from furniture e-store SedieDesign.